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[alt.hypertext] Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ list)

Archive-name: hypertext-faq
Posting-Frequency: every two weeks
Last-modified: 07 May 2004
Created: 2 February 1997 by J. Blustein
Maintainer: J. Blustein 
Copyright: (c) 1997-2004 Jamie Blustein, all rights reserved.  See part C of question 6.1 for details.

        **********                                    *********
         *       *    This FAQ is no longer being     *      *
          *      *    actively maintained. If you     *     *
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  This document is my personal attempt to answer some of the most
frequently asked questions in alt.hypertext and provide some necessary
background.  Although I am solely responsible for its content I've tried to
keep it close to what I think of as the consensus view on all the topics I
discuss.  I welcome all constructive criticism (and compliments).  Please
send them by e-mail to .  Do not send me junk mail!


Subject: Document format

  Each question begins with `Subject:' on a line of its own.  If you have a
suitably equipped newsreader then you can automatically skip to the start
of the next section, e.g. trn will display the start of the section when
you press ^G (control-G).  Of course if your newsreader won't do that
automatically, you can still use a search command to find the next
question: For example, to find the answer to question X.Y (where X and Y
are numbers) search for a line beginning with `Subject: QX.Y)', there will
be only one.  The character sequence `QX.Y)' appears only in the table of
contents and at the beginning of question X.Y.  Recently updated questions
are marked with a `*' at the beginning of the line in the table of

  An HTML document, based on this plain text list, is at
.  To find out what
other versions of this document there are see question 6.1.


Subject: Table of Contents

    A `*' at the beginning of a line in the table of contents marks a
  recently updated question. See question 6.4 for a list of recent updates.

About The alt.hypertext Newsgroup
  Q1.1) What is alt.hypertext about?
  Q1.2) Is it okay to post about new hypertext software, titles, etc. here?
        Software, Literature, Conference Announcements
  Q1.3) Is there an archive of alt.hypertext postings?
  Q1.4) Where are collections of postings about specific topics?
        Link types

Hypertext In General
  Q2.1) What are hypertext and hypermedia?  How do they differ?
  Q2.2) What are some historical milestones about hypertext?
  Q2.3) What conferences are there about hypertext?

Hypertext Models
  Q3.1) What hypertext systems I can read about online?
        Hyper-G, Microcosm, Storyspace, Webthing, World Wide Web, Xanadu  
  Q3.2) Are there any hypertext standards?

References to other electronic resources
  Q4.1) About hypertext/hypermedia
  Q4.2) About electronic publications
  Q4.3) About human-computer interaction

I've fallen in with the wrong crowd.  Please help me out.
  Q5.1) Help! I'm new to this whole Usenet/'net thing
  Q5.2) I just want to know about WWW/HTML.  Where should I go?
  Q5.3) Gosh, this group is noisy.  Are there any mailing lists?
        Hyper-theory, ht_lit, EJournal/EJRNL

About this document
  Q6.1) Where can I get a copy? (and some legal niceties)
        Author/Owner, Versions/Availability, Distribution rights
* Q6.2) Future plans
  Q6.3) Acknowledgments
        Thanks, Citations for quotations
* Q6.4) Recent changes


** Section 1: About The alt.hypertext Newsgroup **

Subject: Q1.1) What is alt.hypertext about?

  alt.hypertext is a Usenet newsgroup intended to support discussion of,
and dissemination of information about hypertext and hypermedia.
alt.hypertext is not a suitable forum for discussion of WWW-specific

  If you would like more information about what a Usenet newsgroup is then
you should read question 5.1.  If you are looking for information about the
World Wide Web (WWW) or its associated hypertext markup languages (HTML,
XHTML, etc.) then you should read question 5.2.  The answer to question 2.1
defines hypertext and hypermedia.


Subject: Q1.2) Is it okay to post about new hypertext software, titles,
               etc. here? 

  A. New software
       Announcements about new hypertext products are welcome in
     alt.hypertext.  If hypertext is only a minor part of the product then
     please consider setting the Follow-up header to point elsewhere.  If
     you are unfamiliar with that way of working then we'd all benefit from
     you reading some of the postings in the news.announce.newusers

  B. New hypertext literature (fiction and non-fiction)
       Announcements and discussion of works in hypertext and about
     hypertext are both appropriate in alt.hypertext.  

  C. Conference announcements
       Many conferences have some hypertext components.  If you have a
     conference announcement that you think will be of interest to the
     hypertext/hypermedia community then please post a copy of it to
     alt.hypertext.  The news.announce.conferences group is another good 
     place for such postings.
       Question 2.3 is about conferences related to hypertext.


Subject: Q1.3) Is there an archive of alt.hypertext postings?

  I know of no publicly accessible archive of alt.hypertext postings.  But
there are some small collections of postings about specific topics.  They
are listed in question 1.4.

  If there was an alt.hypertext archive then I'd expect to be able
to find it in Cameron Laird's List of Usenet Archives at  or Kevin
Atkinson's Usenet Info Center at .

  To find old postings and discussions you could use a search engine, such
as Deja News  or Alta Vista .  You
might also find something at Infinite Ink's Finding News Groups (use  or ) or Yahoo!  helpful.  Cameron Laird provides more suggestions in
his above mentioned List.

  If anyone wants to create an archive, please tell me.


Subject: Q1.4) Where are collections of postings about specific topics?

  So far I only know of collections of postings about link types.  If you
know of anymore then please tell me so that it may also be included here.
Question 4.1 lists some online hypertext resources, not just postings that
appeared in alt.hypertext.

  A. Link Types (What they are and how many are enough)

       Thomas Trickel has compiled and edited a discussion of link types
     from 1993 in various hypertext systems into .  He has also written a short
     related essay about link properties at .  J. Blustein also has a summary of
     the discussion at .


** Section 2: Hypertext In General **

Subject: Q2.1) What are hypertext and hypermedia?  How do they differ?

  The OED Additions Series defines hypertext as
     Text which does not form a single sequence and which may be read
     in various orders; specially text and graphics ... which are
     interconnected in such a way that a reader of the material (as
     displayed at a computer terminal, etc.) can discontinue reading
     one document at certain points in order to consult other related
     matter. [See Q6.3 for complete citation]

  Theodore `Ted' Nelson, who first coined the terms hypertext and
hypermedia, wrote in _Literary Machines_ that `As popularly conceived,
[hypertext] is a series of text chunks connected by links which offer the
reader different pathways.' Neither hypertext nor hypermedia require the
use of links.

  Hypermedia is similar to hypertext but includes media other than text,
e.g. a hypermedia document could include text and graphics, or sound and

  Mark Bernstein has pointed out that, in practice, many hypertext
documents have some graphical content (just as texts often include
illustrations).  Note that the definition quoted above makes the same
point. The distinction between hypertext and hypermedia is so blurry that
some authors call them both hypertext.


Subject: Q2.2) What are some historical milestones about hypertext?

  Vannevar Bush is often credited with describing the first hypermedia
system, named memex.  He wrote about it in his 1945 article _As We May
Think_.  There is an HTML versions at .  Paul Otlet has also been credited
with the development of what we now think of as hypertext, in 1934.  See
 for a version
of an article from the Journal of the American Society for Information
Science v.45 pp.235-250 for more details. 
  Ted Nelson coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia to describe his
proposed system called Xanadu.  According to an article in Vassar College's
Miscellany News, he used the term hypertext in a talk there in 1965
.  The Xanadu homepage
is at .  His book _Literary Machines_
is largely about Xanadu.  Douglas Engelbart demonstrated the first
computerized hypertext system, called NLS/Augment circa 1968.  He also
invented the computer mouse, graphical user interface, etc.!  For more
information about Englebart and his projects see the Bootstrap Alliance
homepage at .  Randy Trigg wrote the first
Ph.D. dissertation based on hypertext circa 1986.  The first hypertext
conference was held in 1987.  The alt.hypertext newsgroup was created in

  _Memex and Beyond_ is a major research, educational, and collaborative
web site integrating the historical record of and current research in
hypermedia: .

  Jorn Barger's hypertext timeline is at .


Subject: Q2.3) What conferences are there about hypertext?

  Hypertext is used in many computer-based technologies and so you can find
hypertext in many fields of inquiry.  For example you can find articles and
presentations in about hypertext in conferences about: digital libraries,
documentation, education, literature, and user interfaces.  There are
however two main conferences for the discussion and study of hypertext in
general: the Hypertext conference (HT) and Digital Arts and Culture (DAC).
Of course the World-Wide Web (WWW) and Annual Conference on World-Wide Web
Applications (ACWWWA) will be of interest to many people who read this
document as well.

  Hypertext is a broad-based conference for exchanges about hypertext.  It
draws artists, developers, and researchers.  According to the DAC 2001
homepage, DAC `aims to embrace and explore the cross-disciplinary and
cross-cultural theory and practice of contemporary digital arts and

  Information about those conferences, or links to that information, can be
found at 
   * Hypertext: 
   * DAC:       
   * WWW:       
   * ACWWWA:    


** Section 3: Hypertext Models **

Subject: Q3.1) What hypertext systems I can read about online?

  It seems impractical to list all of the myriad of hypertext/hypermedia
systems available today.  I've included some major systems here.  If you
feel that some other system has been unfairly excluded then please write
me.  If this list grows too long then it might become a separate posting or
removed altogether.  See also HyTime in question 3.2 below.  The Electronic
Literature Organization might have a list of hypertext tools and systems
available at their website .

  * HyperWave (formerly Hyper-G) 
      HyperWave is a sophisticated Web document management system
      for large information spaces. The project began under the name
      Hyper-G in 1990. Among other things, it features hierarchical
      structuring, link management, attribute and full text search,
      access control, and interactive link and document editing.

     See also the comp.infosystems.hyperg newsgroup.

  * Microcosm 
      An open and extensible hypermedia system designed for managing
      and disseminating unstructured digitally encoded files.
      [URL updated 11 Jan 1998]

  * Storyspace  A
      commercial product described as a `writing environment designed
      for the process of writing. Storyspace is especially well suited
      to working with large, complex, and challenging hypertexts.'
      According to Mark Bernstein, its most distinctive features are
      its hierarchical backbone structure and dynamically flexible
      links with `guard fields', i.e. conditional links (links that
      are available only if certain nodes have been visited.

  * Webthing 
      Webthing's Holistic Hypertext is an object-oriented hypertext system
      designed for collaborative authoring and implemented on the
      WWW. Documents in Webthing generate HTML links from other documents
      on-the-fly, relieving authors of the need to manage HTML links, and
      eliminating the problem of outdated or uncoordinated references.
      [URL updated 27 Jan 1998]

      NB: This system will be unavailable for an unspecified time. For more
       information send e-mail to  or see the
       Webthing, Ltd. website at . 

       A search for WWW-based wikis will likely turn up systems with
       related functionality. A search for the term open hypermedia
       sytem will likely turn up more systems and architectures.
       [Note added 08 May 2002]

  * World Wide Web 
      A very popular link-based hypertext system based on a client-server
      architecture running on the Internet.

      See also question 5.2 for some other resources.

  * Xanadu  
      The system Ted Nelson wrote about in his ground breaking book 
      _Literary Machines_.

      See also the Xanadu FAQ list (posted to several newsgroups, including
      alt.hypertext, and available: (a) in text form from ; (b) and HTML form from 


Subject: Q3.2) Are there any hypertext standards?

  Yes, the extensible markup language (XML) and its related standards are
rapidly being taken up and will all be official very soon. Some of those
related standards include XLink and XPointer (for linking and related
activities) and the synchronized multimedia integration language (SMIL) for
synchronized events.

  Robin Cover has an outstanding index of XML material at .

  There is also a, mostly outdated, ISO standard for describing hypermedia
called HyTime. The full title of that standard is _Information Technology -
Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language (HyTime)_ (ISO/IEC 10744:1992).
It is an international standard for describing hypermedia.  The original
standard (not including the Technical Corrigendum) was edited by Charles
F. Goldfarb (with assistance from Steven R. Newcomb). The standard was
published in Geneva by the International Organization for
Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission in 1992.

  Many pointers to HyTime information are available from the HyTime User's
Group homepage  and Robin Cover's HyTime webpage
.  Both the comp.text.sgml and
alt.hypertext newsgroups host HyTime discussions.


** Section 4: References to other electronic resources **

Subject: Q4.1) About hypertext/hypermedia

  There are far too many online resources about hypertext to list here so
only the most major ones are included here.  As with all sections of this
list, your suggestions for additions are welcome.

  * SIGWEB (the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest
     Group on Hypertext/Hypermedia) has a WWW homepage at

  * The Open Directory Project  lists hypertext
    in at least these four categories: Critical (literary) theory,
    Information overload, Fiction E-zines, and Ted Nelson's
    multi-dimensional data organizing system, Zig Zag.

  * LINKBase is a bibliographic reference system for hypertext-related
     publications at

  * The Hypertext/-media Resources at the University of Konstanz are
     quite good:

  * Eastgate Systems's Selected Hypertext Resources on the Web is
     a compilation of resources on hypertext theory, hypertext fiction,
     and criticism, including many original essays and reviews. It is at 

  * BowerBird was a specialized search engine on hypertext topics.  The
     engine was created by Adrian Miles.  It used to be at  but has been indefinitely

  * Collections of previous alt.hypertext discussions are listed in
     question 1.3.


Subject: Q4.2) About electronic publications

  There are so many documents about electronic publications that it is very
difficult to list even one that is of particular interest for hypertext.

  The description of alt.etext in the Usenet Info Center at  contains references to
some sites.

  EJournal (which is discussed in question 5.3) is particularly occupied
with electronic text.

  SIGWEB members have access to electronic copies of most of the ACM
Hypertext and Digital Libraries proceedings.  (See question 4.1 for
information about SIGWEB.)


Subject: Q4.3) About human-computer interaction

  There is much information and opinion about HCI available electronically.
I expect that from what is listed here you will be able to find what you

  Keith Instone maintains Usable Web (a guide to WWW usability resources)
at .

  Gary Perlman's _what's happening_ column in _interactions_ magazine is a
great place to find out about HCI resources on the 'net .  He suggested the following
newsgroups are relevant for HCI researchers: comp.human-factors,
comp.cog-eng, sci.cognitive, sci.psychology, and comp.groupware.  The
human-factors group has an old FAQ list at .

  The WWW Virtual Library once had sections for HCI and Cognitive Science
(at  and  respectively).

  Noted hypermedia expert Jakob Nielsen writes a monthly column, called
Alertbox, about HCI with a particular focus on the WWW.  Articles are
available at .


** Section 5: I've fallen in with the wrong crowd.  Please help me out. **

Subject: Q5.1) Help! I'm new to this whole Usenet/'net thing

  The following two newsgroups contain some excellent introductory
postings: news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions.

  Whoever is providing you with access to Usenet should be able to give you
some basic introduction or instruction.  This isn't because they are
necessarily nice, but because if they don't at least attempt to tell you
the basics then they can't blame you when you do something awful.  If they
haven't offered you any advice or instruction then ask someone responsible
for some pointers to useful information.  I advise you not to ask another
newcomer -- that is a great way to propagate misconceptions.

  There are many introductory books about the global Internet and Usenet.
If you learn well from books then you might consider buying one or
borrowing it from a library.  Some books are available for free, others are
available for sampling online as an enticement to get you to buy them.  For
a fuller discussion of such books see: (a) the misc.books.technical
newsgroup; (b) the Unofficial Internet Book List at the FTP
site .


Subject: Q5.2) I just want to know about WWW/HTML.  Where should I go?

  There are several newsgroups devoted exclusively to discussion of the
WWW.  For an overview of those groups see Thomas Boutell's FAQ list at
 or in one of the comp.infosystems.www
newsgroups, alt.culture.www or in an archive of news.answers postings such
as at .

  There are many online resources about HTML.  I have no particular one to
recommend however.
  If you are looking for information about ease of use then you might be
interested in: 
  * All Things Web which calls itself `A collection of resources for
    Webspinners & authors' at  (but which
    doesn't seem to have been updated in a few years);

  * Rapid Navigation in Online Documents: Design of documents and viewers 
    to support structured hypertext and easy skimming (Michael Hoffman's
    collection of opinions and pointers) at 

  * Question 4.3 about human-computer interaction.


Subject: Q5.3) Gosh, this group is noisy.  Are there any mailing lists?

  Yes, there are some mailing lists about the issues which are also
appropriate for alt.hypertext.  Specifically, there are the HYPER-THEORY
and HT_LIT lists.  EJournal (an electronic journal) has discussion of
hypertext issues, but it is not a discussion list.  Details of all of those
mailing lists are below.  You might also be interested in the list of
conferences related to hypertext (in question 2.3).

  At the Hypertext 2000 Authors' Workshop about twelve lists were mentioned
that might be of interest to hypertext authors. If you are want to learn
more about those lists then I suggest that you check out the Electronic
Literature Organization's website, at ,
because they have a much better chance of keeping up with the ever changing
world of mailing lists than I do.

  For a more complete list of mailing lists see _Publicly Accessible
Mailing Lists_ and _Mailing Lists Available in Usenet_.  Both are available
through Usenet and are archived at many sites.  Details about all of those
lists are also below.

       The hyper-theory mailing list was created to serve as a medium for
     discussion on hypermedia theory, to help researchers, developers, and
     users pursue their interests in the field of hypermedia theory and
     implementation details, this list was created to serve as a high
     signal to noise ratio resource.
       The list owner, Art Pollard, reserves the right to move the mailing
     list into a moderated format if it is necessary to maintain the list's

       Send an e-mail message to containing:
          subscribe hyper-theory 
       in the *body* of the message.

       After subscribing, you will receive this description of the
       list as well as additional instructions for unsubscribing.

       The ht_lit mailing list is for the discussion of hypertext fiction,
     hypertext theory, and hypertext and literary studies.   There is an
     archive at .   Kia Mennie 
      is the list owner.  Feel free to contact her for more
     information before subscribing.

       Send an e-mail message to
          subscribe ht_lit
       in the *body* of the message.
  C. EJournal (aka EJRNL)
     From the homepage:
       EJournal is an all-electronic, e-mail delivered, peer-reviewed,
       academic periodical. We are particularly interested in theory
       and practice surrounding the creation, transmission, storage,
       interpretation, alteration and replication of electronic `text'
       -- including `display' -- broadly defined. We are also
       interested in the broader social, psychological, literary,
       economic and pedagogical implications of computer-mediated
       networks. The journal's essays are delivered free to Internet

       Send an e-mail message to with the following as
     the first (and only) line of text: 
        SUB EJRNL Your Name

     Further details about the journal and its archives can be found on its
     homepage at . 

  Publicly Accessible Mailing Lists  
     Posted to news.lists, and news.answers by Stephanie da Silva.
     Archived at , 
                  (and mirror sites).

  Mailing Lists Available in Usenet
     Posted to the following newsgroups: news.lists, news.groups,
       news.announce.newgroups, bit.admin, and news.answers by Dave
     Archived at  (and mirror sites).

  Electronic Literature Organization website 
    The ELO is a not-for-profit organization with a mission `to facilitate
    and promote the writing, publishing, and reading of literature in
    electronic media'. They might have a list of mailing lists of interest
    to readers and authors of hypertext and hypertext-like literature.


** Section 6: About this document **

Subject: Q6.1) Where can I get a copy? (and some legal niceties)

  A. Author/Owner
       This document was written by J. Blustein.  Please send constructive
     criticism (and compliments) by e-mail to .  The
     author completed a Ph.D. (about hypertext) in the Department of Computer
     Science at the University of Western Ontario in 1999, and has been
     studying hypertext since 1991.

  B. Versions/Availability
       It is posted infrequently to alt.hypertext, alt.answers and
     news.answers by the MIT faqserver.  It is updated even less often.

     HTML versions should be available at:
       * The Internet FAQ Consortium 
         specifically as single part  or as a

       * Utrecht Univ. (in the Netherlands) 

       * Ohio State Univ. (in the USA)

       * Univ. of Michigan (in the USA)
       * Oxford Univ. (in the UK)
     and perhaps other locations too.

       I've prepared a HTML version of this list at
     .  I try to
     update the versions in sync but I can't promise that they'll always be
     exactly the same. 

  C. Distribution rights
       You are free to use this document for your own personal use.  You
     are free to distribute it in its entirety.  If you wish to distribute
     an incomplete version of the document you must include the following
       * A note to the effect that the version you have is excerpted from
         the entire list;
       * The entire list is a creation of J. Blustein ;
       * The entire list is copyright by J. Blustein (all rights reserved);
       * The entire list is posted infrequently to the alt.hypertext
         Usenet newsgroup and is intended for free distribution;
       * The location where and date when you obtained a copy of the entire
       I would also appreciate receiving a note (by e-mail) that you are
     using an excerpt from the list.

       If you want to distribute a modified version of the list, not just
     excerpts from the list, then you must obtain permission from
     J. Blustein in advance.


Subject: Q6.2) Future plans

  I'd like to have some discussion of hypertext models (such as Dexter) and
an explanation of what open hypertext is.  Since those questions aren't
asked (or answered) much I guess those sections can wait.
  Wikis and other collaborative writing environments deserve serious
attention here.  The section about mailing lists should be updated to point
to Wikis too.
  There needs to be more about the role of the WWW (as a hypertext system
and an enabling technology).  Some discussion and draft Q&A appeared in the
newsgroup in August 2002 and 2003.
  The part about non-linked hypertext needs more details.  An early draft
was posted on 13 August 2002.  New notes appeared exactly a year later too.
  Some URLs need updating and some need replacing.  The HCI section in
particular needs work.  Postings from early August 2002 contain the new


Subject: Q6.3) Acknowledgments

  A. Thanks
       I am grateful to Mark Bernstein and Kia Mennie for their helpful
     comments.  I am solely responsible for the content of this list.
       Question 1.2 was included at Thomas Boutell's suggestion.
       Kivi Shapiro caught some typos that I'd missed.
       Jorn Barger has made many suggestions for changes.  Some of those
     changes are yet to be implemented.

  B. Citations for quotations
     Document Format
         was adapted from similar text in the alt.backrubs FAQ list, with
       the author's permission.

     Question 2.1
         The definition of hypertext is quoted from Oxford English
       Dictionary Additions Series (volume 2), edited by John Simpson and
       Edmund Weiner. It was published in 1993 by Clarendon Press.
         The quote from Ted Nelson is from page 0/2 of _Literary Machines_
       (edition 90.1) published by Mindful Press in 1990.  The earliest
       copyright date in my copy is 1980.  According to the definition of
       hypertext in the OED Additions series (see previous reference), he
       first introduced the term in 1965 at the 20th National Conference of
       the ACM.  Question 2.2 lists some other historical milestones about
       hypertext including an (earlier) 1965 publication of the term

     Question 2.2
         The article about Otlet is entitled `Visions of Xanadu: Paul Otlet
       (1868-1944) and Hypertext'.  It was written by W. Boyd Rayward and
       appeared in JASIS v.45 on pp.235-250, in 1994.  [I took these
       bibliographic details from the WWW version referred to in the
       question and have not confirmed them.]

     Question 3.1
         The description of Hyper-G and Hyperwave was supplied by Keith
         The description of Storyspace was quoted from the web page on 2
       February 1997.
         The description of Webthing was adapted from a submission by Nick
     Question 3.2
         The entry was updated on 10 Feb 1997 with information from Robin
       Cover's _SGML Bibliography: Part 4, I - L_ (last modified February
       07, 1997) at .

     Question 4.1
         The descriptions of the two Easgate Systems resources were adapted
       from text suggested by Mark Bernstein.

     Question 4.3
         The newsgroups and FAQ lists in the Usenet section come from the
       what's happening column in interactions vol. i no. 4 (Oct. 1994) by
       Gary Perlman.

     Question 5.1 (about Usenet)
         was taken from an almost identical question in the alt.backrubs
       FAQ list (with the author's permission).  Actually, the alt.backrubs
       FAQ maintainer and I are quite close. :)

     Question 5.3 (about mailing lists)
         The description of the HYPER-THEORY list is taken from an
       announcement about the list posted by Art Pollard to alt.hypertext,
       comp.infosystems.hyperg, comp.infosystems, comp.infosystems.harvest,
       comp.text.sgml on 17 May 1996 with Message-ID:
         The description of the HT_LIT list was taken from the entry in
       PAML (see question 5.3) and updated by Kia Mennie.
         The description of EJournal was quoted from the 2 February 1997
       version of the EJournal homepage.

     Question 6.4 
         On Andre Deparade's suggestion I began including a list of recent
       significant changes to the list on 27 Jan 1998.


Subject: Q6.4) Recent changes

13 August 2003
  * Q1.1 included reference to XHTML
  * Q6.2 includes reference to post from 13 August 2003
J. Blustein             

      `We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars'
                                 -- Oscar Wilde

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