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comp.os.cpm Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

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Archive-name: CPM-faq
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-Modified: 12 January 1999

Changes from the previous FAQ are marked with a "|" in the first
column, additions marked with a "+".  Corrections or additions to:


I wish to thank the following people for their contributions to this FAQ:

John D. Baker           
Axel Berger             
Hal Bower               
David I. Baldwin        
Gene Buckle             
Frank Cringle           
Ralph Becker-Szendy     
Mike Finn               
Ramon Gandia            
Mike Gordillo           
Trevor Gowen            
Stephen R. Griswold     
Howard Goldstein        <71435^1203@compuserve^COM>
Roger Hanscom           
Ulrich Hebecker         
Gottfried Ira           
Herb Johnson            
Jeffrey Jonas           
Helmut Jungkunz         
Tom Karlsson            
Kirk Lawrence           
Mark Litwack            
Mike Mallett            
William P. Maloney      
Paul Martin             
Don Maslin              
Thomas J. Merritt       
Udo Munk                
Alan Ogden              
Tim Olmstead            
Keith Petersen          
Matthew Phillips        
Jay Sage                
Curt Schroeder          
Peter A. Schuman        
Tim Shoppa              
Scot Silverstein        
Kevin Spears            
Tom Sullivan            
Bill Roch               
Tilmann Reh             
Geir Tjoerhom           
Jack Velte               
Juergen Weber           
Jeffrey J. Wieland      
David Wilson            
Randy Winchester        
Frank Zsitvay           

NOTE:  All of the above addresses have had the periods replaced with ^
to foil spammers.

While this FAQ is not intended to be an advertisement for any product,
please note that some of the contributors have a financial interest in
some of the items mentioned.  Your editor has NO financial interest in
anything mentioned in this FAQ. The most recent copy of this FAQ can be
found at:

Another resource is the Z80 Support Home Page maintained by Thomas


                Table Of Contents

Q1: I just became a proud owner of a cool old machine.....
Q2: I'd like to sell/find a home for my old computer. What is it worth?
Q3: Does CP/M stand for anything?
Q4: What ever happened to Digital Research and Gary Kildall?
Q5: Is CP/M in the Public Domain?
Q6: Where are the CP/M archives?
Q7: Can I subscribe to com.os.cpm via E-Mail?
Q8: What languages/compilers/databases/editors are still available?
Q9: Where can I find Z80 math routines?
Q10: What new CP/M computers are available?
Q11: What is this I hear about a CP/M CD ROM?
Q12: How can I transfer my CP/M files to DOS?
Q13: How can I convert an (insert name) disk to (insert name) format?
Q14: Can I read my 8" disks with my PC?
Q15: Where can I buy new diskettes?
Q16: Can I use the newer floppy drives on my old machine?
Q17: Can I run CP/M on my MSDOS/UNIX/68K machine?
Q18: Where can I get a boot disk for (insert system name)?
Q19: What terminal emulation programs are available?
Q20: How do you unpack a .ARK or .ARC file?
Q21: How do you unpack a .lbr file?
Q22: What are all these .xQx, .xYx, and .xZx file types?
Q23: Are any of these .ARK, .LBR, or CRUNCH utilities on MSDOS?
Q24: Why does my Kaypro drop characters above (insert baud rate)?
Q25: What is an Advent TurboROM?
Q26: How can I add a hard drive to my CP/M Machine?
Q27: What belongs in the unpopulated board area on a Kaypro?
Q28: What is The Computer Journal?
Q29: Are there other magazines supporting CP/M?
Q30: Does anybody support Amstrad machines?
Q31: Does anybody support Sharp Machines?
Q32: What is ZCPR and the Z System?
Q33: What ever happened to the Z800?
Q34: What is the status of the Z380?
Q35: What is the KC80?
Q36: What is the S-100 bus (also known as IEEE-696 bus)?
Q37: Anyone know a good source for cross assemblers?


Q1: I just became a proud owner of a cool old machine.....
A: (Herb Johnson, Tim Shoppa)

   So you have aquired an old system, not one of the all-in-one systems
   like Kaypros or Osbornes, but rather one with lotsa cards in a
   cardcage. But...  no disks, no manuals, maybe even no hard or floppy
   drives.  "Hey, *I* remember these systems! I've always wanted one of
   these!" you say. And now you need some help to get it running.

   We hate to sound discouraging - we like to help owners of old
   equipment after all - but we also want to set people's expectations
   before they spend a lot of time and/or money.  We need be clear as
   to what it takes to "own" an older, pre-IBM PC system.

   You will need to have some degree of knowledge of digital
   electronics, and have some electronic test equipment.  Do not expect
   "the net" to instantly give you the knowledge to fix all your
   problems.  There is no consensus about the amount of knowledge or
   equipment: a VOM for sure, a scope is reasonable, a logic
   analyzer... probably not.  You will learn from the experience of
   debugging and maintaining an older system.

   You will discover that these systems may not be amenable to using
   IBM PC stuff, that they may need 8-inch floppy drives, that these
   systems may not support hard drives. In some cases, these systems
   may not even run all that well even with the original 8-inch drives
   or wierd hard disk controllers!  When you also discover you can't
   get the parts without spending more money, you may lose interest.

   To most people these days, a BIOS by definition is in ROM, so it
   automatically comes with the hardware.  You will learn that the CP/M
   BIOS gets loaded off the boot floppy and lives in RAM.  You'll need
   BIOS source code to do any tinkering, and you may have to
   disassemble it to obtain the source.  And other documentation like
   manuals may be hard to obtain.

   So we'll help you in your search for the original boot disks, the
   original type of floppy drives, and some software to run, but don't
   think you'll just add a hard drive and some (5.25-inch) floppy
   drives and off you'll go!

Q2: I'd like to sell/find a home for my old computer. What is it worth?
A: (Herb Johnson)

   Make a list of what you have to offer: computer types, features, and
   conditions. if it's a bus-based system, what cards are in it? Find
   all the docs and disks, particularly the boot disks. Check the
   system out if you can, and make *multiple copies* of the boot
   disks.  Put one in the disk drive, one with the docs. Take notes.

   Weigh the system, its floppy drives and its documents and disks
   (separately if they are heavy); decide if you want to ship or just
   want local pickup. If you ship, you will have to pack it carefully
   and take it to the shipper.  Figure 25 to 50 cents a pound

   Post a message in comp.os.cpm describing your system, its condition,
   and where you are located.  Disclose any special conditions the new
   owner should know:  "museum quality", "good for parts", "local
   pickup only", "cost of shipping", "will help you", whatever.  Owners
   often recount their history of use to add a human dimension to it
   and often makes negotiations smoother and faster.  You'll eventually
   end up working through all this anyway, so why not do it up front?

   You'll probably get some replies that will inform you on what you
   have and the level of interest in it. Use your common sense about
   all this.  One virtue of offering old computers is that their
   minimal value will not be of interest to scam artists!

   You can try to donate your computer to a school or charity but they
   will most likely refuse or junk it.  There is so much IBM-PC
   compatible stuff around that is considered preferable, and IT gets
   junked most of the time! If you put an ad in the newspaper be
   prepared for a lot of "will it run Windows?" phone calls. You can
   take it to a hamfest or flea market, but you may end up abandoning
   it at the end of the day.

   What is it worth? Generally, the answer is cost of shipping. Prices
   are based on the interest of the buyer and the (dis)interest of the
   seller.  There is no "blue book".  People will offer, and some even
   pay, hundreds of dollars for rare systems such as a MITS Altair
   8800.  Most likely, unless your system is very special, you are
   competing with people who will give away similar systems to a good
   home.  If you are trying to make money, do your homework and check
   for previous sales and requests across the Internet, and use your
   business judgement.

Q3: Does CP/M stand for anything?

A: (Don Kirkpatrick)

   There are at least three popular answers - Control Program for
   Microcomputers, Control Program for Microprocessors, and Control
   Program/Monitor.  The issue is clouded by authors of popular CP/M
   books giving different answers.  According to Gary Kildall (the
   author of CP/M), in response to a direct question on the PBS show
   "The Computer Chronicles" following Computer Bowl I, the answer is:
   Control Program for Microcomputers.  This is also consistent with
   DRI documentation.  See, for example, p. 4 of the DRI TEX manual.

Q4: What ever happened to Digital Research and Gary Kildall?

a: (Don Kirkpatrick)

   DRI was bought out by Novell and subsequently sold off to Caldera,
   which currently owns the copyright to all DRI software.

   Personal computer pioneer Gary Kildall, who but for a single failed
   business deal might have enjoyed the wealth and fame of Bill Gates,
   died July 11, 1994, in a Monterey hospital at age 52.

   Kildall was taken to the hospital after suffering a concussion in a
   fall.  Evidence indicates Kildall suffered a fatal heart attack.  It
   is unclear if the two conditions were related.

Q5: Is CP/M in the Public Domain?

A: (Jay Sage, Don Maslin, Tilmann Reh, Kirk Lawrence, Tim Olmstead)

   On Sept 10, 1996, Caldera, the company that bought all of the
   Digital Research assets from Novell. They have released all of the
   source code for DR products.  You can now go to the OFFICIAL CP/M
   web site at :


   Go to the OpenDos page, then select CP/M downloads.

   The last source for new, legal copies of CP/M (with documentation,
   $9, plus shipping), is:

              California Digital, Inc.
              17700 Figueroa Street
              Gardena CA 90248
              310-217-1951   Fax

   There exists a privately maintained web site with many DRI programs
   and manuals. (Caldera is aware of this site and has given its
   permission to present the material.) Available for download are:

              CP/M 2.2 (binary, source, manuals)
              CP/M 3.0 (binary, source, manuals)
              CP/M-68K (binary for v1.2, and v1.3, no manuals yet)

   The software is licensed free to non-profit users. This includes
   individual users. Commercial licenses are available, but without any
   form of support.  The address of the site is:


   Or its mirror:


   On the other hand, there have been lots of greatly improved clones,
   including ZCPR3 for the command processor and several replacements
   for the BDOS.  Some of these are commercial (e.g., ZSDOS/ZDDOS), but
   many have been released to the public.  Most of the latter can be
   obtained from and many BBSs.

   There is also a CP/M-Plus replacement named ZPM3, written by Simeon
   Cran. It offers much more performance and some additional features
   compared to CP/M-Plus. An extended CCP, the ZCCP, is also available.
   Unfortunately, it still seems to have some bugs.  ZPM3 and ZCCP are
   free! However no sources as Simeon won't give them away.

   New legal copies of CP/M-86 were still available, for $75, from:

              DISCUS Distribution Services, Inc.
              17607 Vierra Canyon road
              Salinas, CA 93907-3312
              (408) 663-6966

   And CP/M-68K is available from:

              James Knox
              1825 East 38 1/2
              Austin, TX  78722
              (512)473-2122 (FAX)

Q6: Where are the CP/M archives?

A: (Don Maslin, Ralph Becker-Szendy, Paul Martin, Ulrich Hebecker)

   Simtel20 is no more.  Six sites that stock CP/M files are:


   As of 25 March 1998, people have been reporting difficulty reaching
   the site and it may be no longer.

   The main archive is  Assuming the availability of
   anonymous ftp, look into the subdirectories of /pub/cpm.  There is a
   *lot* there!  One of the first directories to check is starter-kit.
   It contains everything you need to get up and running.

   If you wish to submit material to, contact:

              Jeff Marraccini
              Senior Computing Resource Administrator
              Oakland University
              Rochester, MI USA 48309-4401
     <- Work

   He will send you instructions and passwords necessary to perform
   an ftp upload. specializes on CP/M programs for the DEC Rainbow,
   but has also some generic CP/M software such as a Micro Emacs, the
   HI-TECH Z80 C compiler and a few games.  Questions about this site
   can be directed to Tom Karlsson, , the site

   There is a European file server group, named TRICKLE.  This group
   mirrors oak.oakland and other archives.  For more information, get
   in touch with your local TRICKLE operator.

   There is a longrunning CP/M file archive with a focus on Microbee
   computers at:


   and some DOS<->CP/M file utilities at:


Q7: Can I subscribe to com.os.cpm via E-Mail?

A:  (Keith Petersen)

    To join the CPM-L mailing list, which is gatewayed to and from
    comp.os.cpm, you must send email to the list server.  If you are on
    BITNET, send the following command:

          SUBSCRIBE CPM-L your full name

    to LISTSERV@RPITSVM.  You can send that in an interactive if your
    system supports them (e.g. the CMS TELL command), or in the body of
    a mail message (*not* the subject line).

    If you are not on BITNET, the Internet subscription address is
    LISTSERV@VM.ITS.RPI.EDU.  Send mail to that address with this text
    in the body of the message:

          SUBSCRIBE CPM-L your full name

Q8: What languages/compilers/databases/editors are still available?

A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy, Ulrich  Hebecker, Jay Sage, Gene Buckle)

   Unfortunately, SLR sold out to Symantec and all products except for
   one DOS (or Windows) tool have been withdrawn from the market (what
   a shame).  However, The Computer Journal does carry the excellent
   ZMAC package including a macro relocatable assembler, linker, and
   librarian.  Except for the speed, ZMAC is better and cheaper than
   the standard SLR tools.

   MIX C and other MIX products are available from:

              Ed Grey
              P.O. Box #2186
              Inglewood, CA 90305

   Hi-Tech C V3.09 for CP/M is now freeware.  The authors are still
   maintaining their copyright, but are allowing free use for both
   private and commercial users without royalty.  The original is on
   their bbs in Australia, at +61 7 3300 5235.  Copies can be obtained
   from: /pub/rainbow/cpm/c /pub/8051c/ /pub/cpm/hitech-c

   Hi-Tech also offers a Z80 cross compiler for DOS or Unix supports
   compilation of CP/M programs. The cross compiler is commercial
   software, but a working demo is available from their ftp and web

   The Computer Journal still offers BDS C, in both the original,
   straight CP/M version and in a version that includes Z-System
   support.  The package, with both versions of the compiler and a very
   large manual, is only $25.

   Micro Emacs is available from: /pub/rainbow/cpm/emacs

   Public domain CP/M programs are available via:

              Elliam Associates
              Box 2664
              Atascadero, CA 93423

   In the past, Elliam has sold Turbo Pascal, Uniform, Nevada COBOL,
   SuperCalc, and much more.  Call for availability and price.

   WordStar 4.0 is available from:

              Trio Company of Cheektowaga Limited
              3290 Genesee Street
              P. O. Box 594
              Cheektowaga, NY 14225-0594

   Dynacomp stills sell CP/M software (or to be accurate, they still
   had several dozen CP/M programs in the 1992 catalog.) It is the
   kind of programs which ought to be written in BASIC: Typing tutors,
   little engineering programs like calculation of the stiffness of
   beams, education math programs. Their address is:

              178 Phillips Road
              Webster, NY 14580
              (800)828-6772 orders
              (716)265-4040 support

   There is no known U.S. source to purchase the following programs:

        Any Microsoft product (M80, L80, F80, Pascal, BASIC)

   Most have been "abandoned" by their makers, but not placed in the
   public domain. There is now a site specializing in making available
   commercial abandoned software. You may find a copy of what you seek
   at The Commercial CP/M Archive:

   For our European readers, much is available in Germany.  dBASE,
   WordStar 3.0, Multiplan 1.06, SuperCalc PCW, and Microsoft Basic
   (Interpreter and Compiler), M80, L80, CREF80 , and LIB80 can be
   ordered in either PCW format or C128 (also native 1571) format from:

              Wiedmann Unternehmensberatung & EDV-Handel
              Hauptstrasse 45
              73553 Alfdorf
              Tel: +49-7172-3000-0 (Inside Germany use 0-7172...)
              Fax: +49-7172-3000-30

   They are marketed as "for the C128", however the disks are in KAYPRO
   IV format, and since the C128 uses the same screen codes as ADM-31
   or KAYPRO, it's probably interesting for people with other CP/M
   machines as well.  Everything is said to come with a German language
   manual and each one is offered for DM 149.50 , including sales tax
   of 16%, which you could probably somehow get a refund on if living
   outside the EC.

|  Also, for our European readers, Z3PLUS (for CP/M, DM 30.--), NZCOM
|  (for CP/M 2.2, DM 30.--), (both for package 50.--), Z-Systems come
   complete with Z3COMs and ZHELPs (another 14 Disks at 360K app. or
   equ.) and German manual(!), BDSC-Z, TURBO Tools, Turbolader, and
|  Juggler (used to be DM 50.--, now: free!) from:

              Helmut Jungkunz
              Spixstr. 12
              81539 Muenchen, Germany
              Tel.: +4989-69737382
              BBS : +49.8801.2453  (24 hours) "ZNODE 51"

+  Please don't miss the best German CP/M page:
+  featuring her Computer Museum and lots of valuable information!
   You can get C128 CP/M Plus (DM 80.-) from:
              Schaltungsdienst Lange Berlin Tel.: 030/7036060

   VDE is a very popular free editor that uses WordStar key bindings.
   It can be obtained from


   for a plain vanilla CP/M system or


   for those running a Z-system.

Q9: Where can I find Z80 math routines?

A: (Roger Hanscom, Hal Bower)

   Programmers looking for examples of commonly used Z80 assembler
   routines may want to look at "Z80 Assembly Language Subroutines" by
   Leventhal and Saville.  It was published by Osborne/McGraw-Hill in
   1983 (ISBN 0-931988-91-8), and it 497 pages long.  It also contains
   general programming information, as well as a summary of the Z80
   instruction set and reference data for the Z80 PIO.  Assembler
   routines given in the book fall into the following categories:

        - code conversion      -array manipulation and indexing
        - arithmetic           -bit manipulation and shifts
        - string manipulation  -array operations
        - I/O                  -interrupts

   For transcendental routines, it is generally better to use a high
   level language, such as Hi-Tech C, where they are built-in.

   Basic 16-bit four-function math (add, subtract, multiply and divide)
   are available in source code as modules within the SYSLIB collection
   of utilities (SMTHxx).  SYSLIB Version 3.6 is freely available, and
   Version 4.x was released in source and linkable (SYSLIB.REL) form
   for non-commercial use only.  Joe Wright still holds the copyright
   as Alpha Systems as far as I know, and Hal Bower has maintained the
   code since circa 1987.

Q10: What new CP/M computers are available?

A: (Ralph Becker-Szendy, John D. Baker, Tilmann Reh, Ramon Gandia,
    Hal Bower)

   The YASBEC (uses a 64180, has  SCSI interface), written up in TCJ,
   issues #51 and #52.  It is important that the YASBEC uses a
   proprietary bus system.

   The CPU280 (uses a Z280, an IDE interface is available), also
   written up in TCJ, issues #52 and #53. Circuit boards are available
   from The Computer Journal.  CPU280 uses the ECB-bus which allows
   many other I/O cards to be connected.

   Ampro LittleBoard products are no longer available from Dean Davidge
   nor are the SB180/SB180FX from Micromint.

   Another CP/M machine is the PalmTech CPUZ180, designed and built in
   Australia. The complete SBC fits on a 6"x4" and runs at 18MHz.
   Included are floppy and IDE hard disk controllers, color/monichrome
   video controller, IBM PC/XT keyboard interface, printer parallel
   port, two serial ports, real time clock, 1 Meg ram, amd many other
   features.  Complete details can be found at:


   and may be ordered from:

               Ramon Gandia        tel. 907-443-7199
               Anvil Technology                    or 907-443-2437
               Box 970, Nome, Alaska 99762-0970  fax. 907-443-2487

   And the P112 from D-X Designs Pty Ltd is a single board CP/M
   compatible computer with the footprint of a 3.5" floppy disk drive.
   It provides a Z80182 (Z-80 upgrade) CPU with up to 1 MB of memory,
   serial parallel and diskette IO, and realtime clock in a 3.5-inch
   drive form factor.  Powered solely from 5V, it draws 150mA
   (nominal:  not including disk drives) with a 16MHz CPU clock.
   Details can be found at:


   and may be ordered from:

               Dave Brooks 

Q11: What is this I hear about a CP/M CD ROM?

A: (Jack Velte)

   The disk is no longer being offered by Walnut Creek. However, copies
   of it are available for $30.00 each, including shipping, from:

              Timer Saver
              521 Sycamore Dr
              Windsor, CO 80550



   It contains over 19,000 files with executable programs, source code,
   documentation, and other materials.  Included are the the entire
   Simtel20 pub/cpm archives, the contents of some major bulletin
   boards, and the personal collections of several leaders in the CP/M
   community.  You'll find:

      Assemblers, compilers, code libraries, and programming tools
      Editors, word processors, spreadsheets, calculators
      Disk, printer, modem and other system utilities
      Archive and compression tools
      Telecommunication software for users and BBS operators
      Articles from user's group journals and other publications
      Games and educational software
      Help files

   You'll also find CP/M emulators and other tools for working with
   CP/M files under DOS, OS/2, and Unix.  Most programs include not
   only documentation but also complete source code.  Programs for all
   different computers are on the disc: Kaypro, Osborne, Commodore,
   Amstrad, Starlet, and others.  This disc comes with a MSDOS view
   program which allows you to view, decompress, or copy files to your
   disk.  It's fully BBS'd with description files compatible with
   popular MSDOS BBS programs.

   A spokesman for Walnut Creek said that it is just not feasible for
   them to have another run made.  When asked specifically about having
   a few made privately, the spokesman said the entire disk is public
   domain and freeware, and that Walnut Creek doesn't need to give
   permission to have anyone copy it.  They're not looking for a
   royalty or even acknowledgment.

Q12: How can I transfer my CP/M files to DOS?

A: (Don Maslin, Will Rose, Alan Ogden, Tilmann Reh, Herb Johnson,
    Trevor Gowen, Hal Bower)

   (Note: also see Q13 on "disk formats".)

   One solution is Sydex' excellent shareware program 22DISK which
   permits reading, writing, and formatting many CP/M format disks on a
   PC.  Version 1.44 is available at:

   22DISK is shareware and should be registered.  It supports 8-inch
   drives on PC's, provided either a adaptor is wired to the PC's
   floppy controller or that a CompatiCard is installed. Sydex or Herb
   Johnson can provide assistance with using standard PC controllers.
   Sydex can be reached at:

              P.O. Box 5700
              Eugene, OR  97405
              Voice:  (541)  683-6033
              FAX:    (541)  683-1622
              Data:   (541)  683-1385

   MicroSoulutions used to make a program called Uniform and You might
   be able to locate a copy at a swap meet or from a distributor. There
   are versions for both the IBM-pc's and a lot of different cp/m

   Some flavors of PC have a problem with both UniForm and 22disk and
   UniForm will not operate properly under DRDOS v6.0.  UniForm also
   fails if the machine clock exceeds ~20MHz.  This has been confirmed
   with MicroSolutions, and no fix is available.

   Another solution is the MSODBALL suite of programs by John Elliot.
   They work by using a format (the msodball format) that is
   convertible via the main program to become useable on either CP/M
   (3.x ?) or MSDOS. MSODBALL.COM has been written in such a way that
   the latest version will run directly under either CP/M or MSDOS.
   They can be found at: /pub/cpm/amstrad/mso210.arc

   You need not use the DOS machine - there are also at least three
   transfer programs running under CP/M: TRANSFER (for CP/M-2.2), of
   which a quick-hack CP/M-3 adaptation also exists; DOSDISK, and MSDOS
   for CP/M-Plus written by Tilmann Reh, latest version 2.1 of Oct 93.
   TRANSFER and MSDOS are freely available, DOSDISK is commercial.
   MSDOS has two related utilities:  MSFORM will create the DOS Boot
   Record, FAT and directory structure on a freshly formatted disk, and
   MSDIR will give you a quick look at the main directory of a DOS

   DosDisk is a standard CP/M product.  As supplied, it runs only on
   the following specific hardware:

        all Kaypros equipped with a TurboROM
        all Kaypros equipped with a KayPLUS ROM and QP/M or CP/M
        Xerox 820-I equipped with a Puls-2 ROM and QP/M
        Ampro Little Board
        SB180 and SB180FX equipped with XBIOS
        Morrow MD3 and MD11
        Oneac On!
        Commodore C128 with CP/M-3 and 1571 drive

   DosDisk also runs on any of the configurations with B/P Bios
   (non-banked ZSDOS only), to include the Ampro Little Board, SB-180,
   SB180FX, YASBEC and P112.

   There is also a kit version for which the user can write his own
   driver, provided the BIOS implements a table-driven disk interface.
   Contact Jay Sage for details.  DosDisk and MSDOS both handle DOS

   You can also use a null modem or other serial link and terminal
   emulation programs running on each machine. For example, the CP/M
   machine could run KERMIT, IMP, or MEX and another program that
   supports the same file transfer protocol on the second machine, such
   as Procomm or Hyperterminal on a PC.  The usual problem is getting
   the terminal program onto the CP/M machine - having someone send you
   a disk is the easiest way, but you can also use a crude assembler or
   basic program to transfer the real program, or use pip to send
   across a hex version (pip can only transfer ascii files.)

   Remember, these conversion programs only move the data, as is, in
   its current binary form, from one disk format to another.  They do
   not reinterpret the data so that a different program can use the
   information.  However, there are some tools under DOS that will
   convert word processing file data among different word processors,
   such as WordStar, Word Perfect, and Microsoft Word.  If the CP/M
   computer that made the original disk is still running, you might

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