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Last-Modified: 2004-06-14
Posting-Frequency: bi-monthly
URL: http://www.finseth.com/emacs.html
Copyright: 1990-9, 2000-4 by Craig A. Finseth
Archive-name: emacs-implementations
Disclaimer: Approval for *.answers is based on form, not content.

Emacs Implementations

    Document id

        Emacs Implementations and Literature
        ftp://ftp.finseth.com/users/emacs
        http://www.finseth.com/emacs.html

        Last posted 2004-06-14

       Contact:

        Craig A. Finseth  
        http://www.finseth.com

        Note the information regarding "The Craft of Text Editing"!

        People interested in this FAQ might also be interested in:

            http://www.jwz.org/doc/emacs-timeline.html 

        and:

            http://www.emacswiki.org

    Copyright

        This FAQ document is Copyright 1990-9,2000-4 by Craig A. Finseth.

        It may be reproduced and archived as part of normal network
        distribution.  Such distribution is assumed to include CD/ROM or other
        bulk, unedited distribution.

        It may be reproduced for individual or non-commerical use provided
        that it is reproduced intact.

        It may be reproduced for commercial use provided:

        o   it is reproduced essentially intact including all copyright
            notices and acknowledgements,

        o   the publisher obtains the latest version directly from the
            FAQ maintainer (using the above FTP/WWW site is acceptable),

        o   the publisher provides the FAQ maintainer with information
            on what collection the copy of the FAQ is in, and how that
            collection may be obtained,

        o   all material modifications (other than formatting) are
            clearly marked.

    Posted to comp.editors, comp.emacs, alt.religion.emacs, alt.answers,
        comp.answers, news.answers

    Description

        This document provides a partial -- and not comprehensive -- list
        of implementations of Emacs-type editors and literature about such
        editors. You can help make it more comprehensive by sending me
        additional information and/or updates.

        This document is also gradually acquiring the role of a repository
        of (at least) Emacs-related history. While that subject requires a
        book to itself, this document will probably serve until someone
        (_not_ me!) writes one.

        This document is available via anonymous FTP and WWW. See above
        URLs.

        To be included in this list:

        o   A piece of literature should be a book, manual, article, paper,
            or something that covers (or mentions) Emacs in particular or
            text editing techniques in general. Specifically excluded are
            items that are only of interest to non-Emacs users (a book on
            "how to use vi") or vendor manuals for Emacs implementations
            (as those are implicitly included in the implementations).
            Non-vendor (i.e., third party) manuals are included.

        o   An implementation must either (1) be "advertised" as being an
            Emacs-type editor or (2) be extensible and come with an Emacs
            command set "mode" already written. Editors that are extensible
            but do not come with such a mode (i.e., you have to write it
            yourself) are not listed.

       The following information is included for each implementation:

        The *NAME* line contains the name of the implementation.
        Implementations are listed alphabetically by name. Acronym
        expansions are listed in ()s. Other acronyms:

            TECO    TAPE Editor and COrrector
                    (later: Text Editor and COrrector)
            EMACS   Editor MACroS

        The *LAST* *CHANGED/VERIFIED* line contains the date that the entry was
        last changed or an explict "looks ok to me" was received. This
        field was added 1994-12-20, so all entries were initialized to that
        value.

        The *ORIGINAL* *DISTRIBUTION* is the date (or partial date) of the
        first release. It is in YYYY-MM-DD format.

        The *VERSION* is the latest known version. It is probably out of
        date.

        The *BASE* *LANGUAGE* is the language that you need a compiler or
        interpreter for in order to use the editor. If the software is
        distributed as a pre-compiled binary, this should be the language
        that the program was written in.

        The *IMPLEMENTATION* *LANGUAGE* is the language that the bulk of the
        implementation is written in.

        The *EXTENSION* *LANGUAGE* is the (often custom or modified) language
        that the is used when altering or writing extensions to the
        implementation. It is "none" if there is no extension language.

        The *SCOPE* is either "command set" or "extensible." In the first
        case, the implementation offers a basic Emacs command set; however
        the user cannot readily change what the commands do. In the second
        case, the user can fully control what all of the commands do.

        The *REQUIREMENTS* is a brief characterization of what hardware or
        software is required. The purpose of this item is to offer a broad
        selection key; not be a comprehensive list. You should consult the
        implementation (for free software) or the vendor to find out
        whether a specific implementation works in your environment. For
        example:

        o   "UNIX" refers to any version of UNIX(tm) from any vendor.
        o   "IBM PC" is used to cover MS/DOS, OS/2, and Windows
            implementations.

        (Starting Dec 1994 the list will support an additional level of
        detail for IBM PCs.)

        o   "DOS" refers to MS/DOS support. May also run under Windows or
            OS/2 in some mode. - "Windows" refers to Microsoft Windows support.
        o   "OS/2" refers to to OS/2 support. - "Windows NT" refers to
            Microsoft Windows NT support.

        The *ORGANIZATION* is the name of and contact information for the
        implementor OR >CURRENT MAINTAINER<.

        The *STATUS* is one of

        o   no longer available: Self-explanatory.
        o   free: The implementation is available to most people at no
            charge. Even such "free" implementations may have restrictions:
            consult information about the particular implementation. Where
            available, information on how to obtain a copy is also listed.
        o   not free: The implementation is for sale. Contact the vendor
            for specifics.

        Many of the names of the implementations in this list are
        trademarked. Specific trademarks are not called out.

        Full source code is available for all of the free implementations.
        Source availability varies among the not free implementations:
        check with the vendor before you buy.

Table of Contents

Literature

    GNU Emacs and XEmacs: A Better Way to Learn Emacs and Lisp

            Title:          GNU Emacs and XEmacs: A Better Way to Learn Emacs and Lisp
            Author(s):      Larry Ayers
            Publisher:      Prima Publishing
            Size:           544pp
            ISBN:           0-7615-2446-0
            Price:          $49.99

        _Notes:_ 2001, with CD containing source and images of XEmacs
        21.1.14 and 21.4.3,  GNU Emacs 20.7 and 21.0, and many add-on 
        packages. Good coverage of customization and add-on packages.

    Learning Gnu Emacs, 2nd Edition

            Title:          Learning Gnu Emacs, 2nd Edition
            Author(s):      Debra Cameron, Bill Rosenblatt & Eric Raymond
            Publisher:      O'Reilly and Associates, Inc.
            Size:           560pp
            ISBN:           1-56592-152-6
            Price:          $29.95

        _Notes:_ 1996, Emacs 19.30 and above

    The Craft of Text Editing: Emacs for the Modern World

            Title:          The Craft of Text Editing: Emacs for the Modern World
            Author(s):      Craig A. Finseth
            Publisher:      Springer-Verlag
            Size:           220pp, 10 chapters, 5 appendices
            ISBN:           0-387-97616-7, 3-540-97616-7
            Price:          $39.95
            Japanese language edition: 4-938704-26-9 Y3600 paper

        _Notes:_ 1991-10, first edition not version specific
        No longer in print as of July 1999.  Available via
        the web at http://www.finseth.com/craft

    GNU Emacs Reference

            Title:          GNU Emacs Reference
            Author(s):      Dennis Gentry
            Publisher:      Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc.
                            P.O. Box 55549
                            Seattle WA 98155
                            USA
                            +1 206 782 7733
                            +1 206 782 7191 fax
                            sales@ssc.com
            Size:           18pp, 8 1/2" x 3 1/2"
            ISBN:           0-916151-83-2
            Price:          $4.50
            Notes:          1995, updated


    The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, GNU Emacs Version

            Title:          The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, GNU Emacs Version
                            19 for Unix Users, Edition 2.01, June 1993
            Author(s):      Bil Lewis, Dan LaLiberte, Richard Stallman and the GNU
                            Manual Group
            Pubisher:       Free Software Foundation
            Size:           748pp + 18pp index
            ISBN:           1-882114-20-5
            Price:          free (see GNU Emacs sites) or for fee from FSF
            Notes:          -

    Unix Desktop Guide to Emacs

            Title:          Unix Desktop Guide to Emacs
            Author(s):      Ralph Roberts and Mark Boyd
            Consultants:    Stephen G. Kochan and Patrick H. Wood
            Publisher:      Hayden Books (SAMS)
            Size:           xxiv + 504 pages, including index
            ISBN:           0-672-30171-7
            Price:          $27.95 US, $34.95 CAN

        _Notes:_ Copr. 1992, first printing 1992 Library of Congress
        Catalog Card No. 91-62815

    GNU Emacs:  UNIX Text Editing and Processing

            Title:          GNU Emacs:  UNIX Text Editing and Processing
            Author(s):      Michael A. Schoonover, John S. Bowie, and William R. Arnold
            Publisher:      Addison-Wesley / HP Press
            Size:           640pp, 14 chapters, 4 appendices
            ISBN:           0-201-56345-2
            Price:          $26.95

        _Notes:_ 1991-11, first printing Emacs 18

    GNU Emacs Manual, Twelfth Edition, Version 19.33

            Title:          GNU Emacs Manual, Twelfth Edition, Version 19.33
            Author(s):      Richard Stallman
            Publisher:      Free Software Foundation
            Size:           506pp
            ISBN:           1-882114-52-3 (may have changed)
            Price:          free (see GNU Emacs sites) or for fee from FSF

    Sams Teach Yourself Emacs in 24 Hours, 

            Title:          Sams Teach Yourself Emacs in 24 Hours
            Author(s):      Jesper Pedersen, with contributions from
                            Jari Aalto, Charles Curley, Eric Ludlam,
                            and Larry Ayers
            Publisher:      Sams Publishing
            Size:           approx. 445pp including index, CD included
            ISBN:           0-672-31594-7
            Price:          $24.99 (to be released Apr/May 1999)

    Writing GNU Emacs Extensions

            Title:          Writing GNU Emacs Extensions
            Author(s):      Bob Glickstein
            Publisher:      O'Reilly and Associates, Inc.
            Size:           215pp
            ISBN:           1-56592-261-1
            Price:          $29.95

        _Notes:_ April 1997, First Edition. "[E]xamples ... all developed
        and tested in GNU Emacs version 19.34 under various flavors of
        UNIX.... [P]resumes familiar[ity] with programming and with Emacs."
        Lisp fundamentals are presented, with "Lisp Quick Reference."

GNU-Emacs binaries

    GNU-Emacs

            name: GNU-Emacs
            last changed/verified: 2002-05-09
            original distribution: ?
            version: 20.6
            base language: C
            implementation language: Lisp
            extension language: Lisp
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements:

                UNIX, VMS, OS/2, MS-DOS, Amiga, Atari ST

        Organization:

            Free Software Foundation
            59 Temple Place, Suite 330
            Boston MA 02111-1307
            USA
            +1 617 542 5942
            +1 617 542 2652 fax
            gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu

        Free, anonymous FTP from:

            ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/emacs/
            ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/emacs-19.34.tar.gz
            scam.berkeley.edu
            itstd.sri.com
            wuarchive.wustl.edu
            bu.edu
            louie.udel.edu
            nic.nyser.net
            ftp.cs.titech.ac.jp
            funic.hut.fi
            sunic.sunet.se
            freja.diku.dk
            gatekeeper.dec.com
            mango.miami.edu (VMS G++)
            ftp.uu.net
            archive.cis.ohio-state.edu

            OS/2    http://hobbes.nmsu.edu/cgi-bin/h-browse?sh=1&dir=/pub/os2/apps/editors/emacs

       Macintosh ports:

            FSF's Emacs 20.6 port by Andrew Choi
            http://www.csis.hku.hk/~choi/emacs/index.html

            XEmacs 19.14 by Pitts Jarvis
            http://my.ispchannel.com/~pjarvis/xemacs.html

            Version 1.17 is available from:
            ftp://ftp.cs.cornell.edu/pub/parmet/
            parmet@cs.cornell.edu

            http://download.vector.co.jp/pack/mac/writing/edit/nit591.sea.bin
            This is a bare-bones Japanese version of EMACS.  It's missing all
            the cool GNU-stuff (including help),  but it does do split-
            screening and all of the cursor/text editing commands that I
            tried.  It's a 86.7K (yes, that's kilobytes!) download.  A very
            sweet blend of EMACS and Macintosh technology.
            (Edward )

            http://www.csis.hku.hk/~choi/emacs/
            Version 20.6.  This is by far the most comprehensive and
            fastest version of EMACS for the Mac.  It is also the most
            actively developed version I know of.  Even mail can be
            implemented by remapping mail calls to Eudora-Lite Applescripts.
            The only bummer is that there is no GNUS and no printing!
            (Edward )

        WinCE:

            http://www.rainer-keuchel.de/emacs/emacs-wince.html

        Binaries only:

        o   for dos: ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/v2gnu/
        o   for win95: ftp://ftp.cs.washington.edu/pub/ntemacs/latest/i386/
            ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/ibmpc/dos/apps/editors/emacs19.24
            ftp.imada.ou.dk:pub/mirrors/msdos/emacs-19.24
            Randy Zack , MS-DOS,
        o   Linux   sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Distribution-HOWTO
        o   ftp://ftp.vms.stacken.kth.se/GNU-VMS/Beta/ EMACS-19_22-**.TAR-GZ.
            info at: http://www.e.kth.se/elev/levitte/gnu/emacs.html
            on the SPAN network, contact rdss::corbet

        On UUCP, contact one of:

            hao!scicom!qetzal!upba!ugn!nepa!denny
            hqda-ai!merlin
            uunet!hutch!barber
            sun!nosun!illian!darylm
            oli-stl!root
            postmaster@uunet.uu.net
            uucp@cis.ohio-state.edu (or osu-cis!uucp)

    Ohio State also posts their UUCP instructions regularly to
    the news group comp.sources.d

    _Note:_ You can also obtain tapes and CD-ROM distributions from the FSF.

Implementations Available For No Charge

    Anthony's Editor

            name: ae (Anthony's Editor)
            last changed/verified: 1994-12-20
            original distribution: ?
            version: Feb 92
            base language: C
            implementation language: C
            extension language: none
            scope of implementation: command set
            hardware/software requirements: Unix, IBM PC, Atari ST; requires curses
            organization/author:
                    Anthony Howe
                    Mortice Kern Systems Inc.
                    35 King St N
                    Waterloo Ontario
                    Canada N2J 6W9
                    ant@mks.com
            free, periodically posted to Comp.editors

    AMIS

            name: AMIS
            last changed/verified: 2002-07-22
            original distribution: ?
            version:
            base language: Pascal
            implementation language: Pascal
            extension language: none
            scope of implementation: command set
            hardware/software requirements: VMS, Norsk Data, Tops10, RSTS
            organization/author:

                    Stacken Computer Club
                    c/o NADA
                    S-100 44 Stockholm
                    Sweden
                    stacken@stacken.kth.se

        _Note:_ the name is an abbreviation of "Anti-MISAER" (where "AE" is
        the "ae" glyph). "Misaer" is Swedish (svenska) for "piece of junk,
        or deep shit functionality" (translation provided by the person who
        told me about this) The name thus means "not a piece of junk."
        Tops10, RSTS, Norsk Data versions are free, send them a 1/2 inch,
        2400-foot magnetic tape and return postage VMS version is $1000 US
        (the money supports their DEC10 museum)

        Addendum from Jesper Larsson : This is
        not quite correct. First, if "misAEr" is the Swedish word, "AE"
        should not be the "ae" glyph (not used in Swedish -- maybe it's
        spelled that way in Norwegian), but an "a" with two dots above
        it. Secondly, this word actually means "destitution" or "penury".
        It is closely related to the English word "misery". [ I am _not_
        going to get in the middle of a how to translate Swedish to
        English issue here -- Craig ]

            free from
                    http://pdp-10.trailing-edge.com/tops10_tools_bb-fp64b-sb/index.html


    AxE

            name: AxE
            last changed/verified: 2001-03-14
            original distribution: ?
            version: ?
            base language: ?
            implementation language: ?
            extension language: ?
            scope of implementation: ?
            hardware/software requirements: ?
            organization/author:
                    docs at http://www.apl.jhu.edu/~larry/unix/unixdocs/editors/axe.html
                    http://it.aminet.net/pub/Unix/pkgs/editor/axe/

        Note: This is a GUI based Emacs-like editor using Athena widgets.

    Barry's Emacs

            name: Barry's Emacs
            last changed/verified: 2003-12-08
            original distribution: 1994
            version: V7.2.0 Win32,Release build 230
            base language: C++
            implementation language: MLisp
            extension language: MLisp, Python
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: Windows, Unix
            organization/author:
                    Barry Scott
                    barry@barrys-emacs.org
            free, from:
                    http://www.barrys-emacs.org/
            a bit of history...the source was posted to the net by James
            Gosling (in about 1980-ish, I think). It was modifed by Barry,
            within Digital Equipment Corporation. It ran on VMS and was
            available only internally to Digital. The language changed to
            Bliss-32 (better performance on VMS) and then to C (for
            portability) and now C++. Barry left Digital in 1994 and about
            then (or perhaps a little sooner?) released to the public.
            -- Jack Horsfield 

    Bzdired

            name: bzdired
            last changed/verified: 1997-09-03
            original distribution: 1998
            version: 7.1
            base language: C
            implementation language: C
            extension language: superset of what you type
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: Unix
            organization/author:
                    Ralph Betza (FM)
                    gnohmon@scscomm.com
            free, from:
                    http://scscomm.com/~gnohmon/dired.cpio.gz

        _Notes:_ ..."Recently, I have tried gnu emacs, to browse the web,
        to read news, and even to edit a few files and to test drive its
        dired mode. Except as a newsreader/browser, I simply cannot stand it!
        True, everybody always has trouble when they try to use some editor
        other than the one they're used to, but there's more to it than
        that: Everything takes more keystrokes to do than I'm used to, and you
        have to remember all sorts of long names filled with dashes.
        Its dired mode stinks because when you edit a file, there's no
        simple command to leave that file and go back up. (It has recursive
        edit, but doesn't use it because it thinks that might confuse you;
        by contrast, bzdired is recursive edit first and foremost.)
        The effort it takes to learn how to customize it is greater than
        the effort it would take to write a new editor from scratch.
        (Perhaps I exaggerate a bit...)
                            ...
        To be fair about it, bzdired can't use the mouse unless you
        recompile your xterm (a patch is included), wants you to program it
        in a write-only language, and worst of all isn't even 8-bit-clean."

    Demacs

            name: Demacs
            last changed/verified: 1999-08-14
            original distribution: 1992?
            version: 1.2.0
            base language: C
            implementation language: Lisp
            extension language: Lisp
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: IBM PC, 386 or better, MS-DOS
            organization/author:
                    Manabu Higashida
                    Osaka University
                    JAPAN
                    manabu@sigmath.osaka-u.ac.jp

                    HIRANO Satoshi
                    University of Tokyo
                    Japan
                    hirano@tkl.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp
            free, anonymous FTP from
                    ftp.sigmath.osaka-u.ac.jp in pub/Msdos/Demacs/*
                    utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp in GNU/demacs/*
                    on Garbo-PC mirror sites
                    ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/editor

        _Note:_ Demacs is currently based on GNU Emacs version 18.55 (partly
        18.57). You may wish to check out OEmacs, GNU-Emacs v19.23 or
        later, or NTEmacs.

    E3

            name: E3
            last changed/verified: 2000-11-22
            original distribution: ?
            version: ?
            base language: C,asm
            implementation language: C
            extension language: C
            scope of implementation: command set
            hardware/software requirements: Linux, FreeBSD, BeOs
            organization/author:
                    ?
            free, anonymous FTP from
                    http;//www.sax.de/~adlibit/

    EDMACS

            name: EDMACS
            last changed/verified: 1994-12-20
            original distribution: ?
            version: 2.0
            base language: TECO
            implementation language: TECO
            extension language: TECO
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: PDP/11
            organization/author:
                    Michael Bloom
                    mb@ttidca.tti.com
            free, anonymous FTP from

                    usc.edu in /pub/teco/soflib.tar.Z
                    (in subdir "11-737" of tar image)

            DECUS program library as DECUS #11-737 (nominal media charge)

    Edwin

            name: Edwin
            last changed/verified: 1994-12-20
            original distribution: ?
            version:
            base language: CScheme
            implementation language: CScheme
            extension language: CScheme
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: UNIX, VMS, 386-DOS
            organization/author:
                    Scheme Distribution
                    c/o Prof. Hal Abelson
                    545 Technology Sq. Room 410
                    Cambridge MA 02139
                    USA
                    info-cscheme-request@zurich.ai.mit.edu
            free, anonymous FTP from
                    zurich.ai.mit.edu in pub/scheme/README
            also, check out other Scheme implementations

    Elle

            name: Elle (Elle Looks Like Emacs)
            last changed/verified: 1994-12-20
            original distribution: ?
            version: 4.1g
            base language: C
            implementation language: C
            extension language: none
            scope of implementation: command set
            hardware/software requirements: UNIX, MINIX, TOPS-20, TOPS-10 (!)
            organization/author:
                    Ken Harrenstein
                    c/o SRI International
                    333 Ravenswood Ave
                    Menlo Park CA  94025
                    USA
                    klh@nisc.sri.com
            free, anonymous FTP from
                    nisc.sri.com in pub/klh/elle.tar (or elle.tar.Z)

    Emacs

            name: Emacs
            last changed/verified: 1994-12-20
            original distribution: 1975
            version: 165
            base language: MIDAS (PDP10/DEC-20 assembly language)
            implementation language: TECO
            extension language: TECO
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: PDP10/ITS or DEC-20/TOPS-20
            organization/author:
                    Richard M. Stallman
                    MIT AI Lab/MIT Lab. for Comp. Sci.
                    545 Technology Square
                    Cambridge MA 02139
                    USA

        _Note:_ this is the original free, anonymous FTP from ?

    Emacs for HP49G and HP49G+

            name: Emacs for HP49G and HP49G+
            last changed/verified: 2004-03-05
            original distribution: 2000-?-?
            version: 2.00
            base language: HP49G-specific
            implementation language: HP49G-specific
            extension language: HP49G-specific
            scope of implementation: command
            hardware/software requirements:
                    HP49G or HP49G+ calculator
            organization/author:
                    Carsten Dominik, dominik science.uva.nl
                    Peter Geelhoed, p.f.geelhoed wbmt.tudelft.nl
            free anonymous FTP:
                    http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/hpcalc/emacs/

        _Note:_ While possibly not a "real" Emacs, this is just too
        cool to leave out.

    Emacs for NeXTstep

            name: Emacs for NeXTstep (aka Emacs.app)
            last changed/verified: 1995-06-15
            original distribution: 1994-04-24
            version: 4.1
            base language: Objective C
            implementation language: Lisp
            extension language: Lisp
            scope of implementation: extensible
            hardware/software requirements: Any hardware/software which GNU Emacs
                    19.28 runs on in general.  To use the added NeXTstep features
                    requires NeXTstep 3.x or later (for best results 3.3 or later)
                    on any hardware platform supported by NeXTstep.
            organization/author:
                    Carl Edman
                    Department of Physics
                    Princeton University
                    Princeton NJ 08540
                    USA
                    cedman@princeton.edu
            free anonymous FTP:
                    - Binary package for m68k, i386, hppa and sparc NeXTstep machines on
                      ftp.cs.orst.edu in
                      pub/next/binaries/editors/Emacs_for_NeXTstep_4.1.pkg.NIHS.b.tar.gz.
                    -  Source on ftp.cs.orst.edu in
                      pub/next/sources/editors/Emacs_for_NeXTstep_4.1.src.NIHS.s.tar.gz.

        _Note:_ Emacs for NeXTstep 4.1 is a superset of GNU Emacs 19.28
        with which it shares most of the code. The main change is that this
        Emacs supports the NeXTstep window system on the same level as GNU
        Emacs supports the X window system. It continues to fully support
        the X window system as well.

        Also, this may be new information on the same release: Emacs.app, a
        full port of GNU Emacs to NeXTstep also supporting NS features,
        runs on Intel, NeXT, and HP hardware.

        There are also two mailing lists for Emacs for NS,
         and
        . The former is intended
        for general discussion and allows anybody to post. The latter
        restricts posting and should contain only a handful of
        announcements of new releases every year. Both of these lists are
        handled by the CREN Listproc which means that you can subscribe and
        unsubscribe automatically. For example, to subscribe to
        emacs-for-ns-users I'd send a message with the content `SUBSCRIBE
        emacs-for-ns-users Carl Edman' to .
        For more details write to the same address with the content `HELP'.

        This is the second public release of Emacs for NeXTstep (**).

        ** So why in the world is it called version 4.1 ? To avoid
        confusion with the older Emacs.app interface (lately up to
        version 3.1) which is completely unrelated except for the fact
        that its author, Michael Brouwer, has been a major contributor to
        this project as well. And even he has replaced the old Emacs.app
        with Emacs for NeXTstep.

    Epoch

            name: Epoch
            last changed/verified: 1994-12-20
            original distribution: ?
            version: 4.2
            base language: C
            implementation language: Lisp

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