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Archive-name: literate-programming-faq
Last-modified: 2000/03/15
Version: 1.3.1

The Literate Programming FAQ
  David B. Thompson 
  Version: 1.3.1, Mar 15, 2000

  The purpose of this document is two-fold: First, there is a need to
  present a basic description of literate programming and how applica-
  tion of literate programming principles can improve the resulting
  code.  Second, there is a need to present a list of tools available 
to
  iterate programmers.  Hopefully, this document will meet both needs.
  ____________________________________________________________________
__

  Table of Contents






















































  1. Welcome

     1.1 Disclaimer
     1.2 Copyright
     1.3 What's New?
     1.4 What's Needed?

  2. Introduction

  3. How do I get the FAQ?

     3.1 Literate Programming FAQ

  4. Is there a newsgroup?

  5. What internet nodes are of interest to literate programmers?

     5.1 Web Ring
     5.2 The Literate Programming Archive (LPA)
     5.3 Comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN)

  6. What is Literate Programming?

  7. How do I begin literate programming?

  8. Important and Actively-Supported Tools

     8.1 CWEB
     8.2 CWEBx3.0
     8.3 FWEB
     8.4 noweb
     8.5 nuweb
     8.6 ProTeX

  9. Unsupported Tools

     9.1 AFTWEB (Almost Free Text WEB)
     9.2 APLWEB
     9.3 CLiP
     9.4 mCWEB
     9.5 FunnelWeb
     9.6 FunnelWeb 3.0AC
     9.7 LEO
     9.8 Literate Programmer's Workshop (LPW)
     9.9 MapleWEB
     9.10 Matlabweb
     9.11 RWEB
     9.12 SchemeWEB
     9.13 SpideryWEB
     9.14 WEB
     9.15 WinWordWEB

  10. Are there other tools I should know about?

     10.1 C2LaTeX
     10.2 c2cweb
     10.3 c2man
     10.4 cnoweb
     10.5 dpp
     10.6 Fold2Web
     10.7 Funnelweb Mode
     10.8 noweb.el
     10.9 noweb-outline.el
     10.10 nuweb.el
     10.11 Web mode

  11. What other resources are available?

     11.1 TeX Resources

  12. Are there any code examples?

  13. Bibliographies

  14. Other Opinions about Literate Programming

     14.1 van Ammers
     14.2 Ramsey
     14.3 My (Dave Thompson's) Experience
     14.4 Others

  15. How to anonymously ftp

  16. Acknowledgements

  17. End notes



  ____________________________________________________________________
__

  1.  Welcome

  Information contained in this document is the best available at
  preparation.  The original file was dated October 15, 1993 (just for
  historical purposes).


  1.1.  Disclaimer

  This FAQ is presented with no warranties or guarantees of ANY KIND
  including correctness or fitness for any particular purpose.  The
  author of this document has attempted to verify correctness of the
  data contained herein; however, slip-ups can and do happen.  If you
  use this data, you do so at your own risk.


  1.2.  Copyright

  Copyright 1993-2000 by David B. Thompson.  All rights reserved
  worldwide. Permission is granted to copy this document for free
  distribution so long as it remains intact and unmodified.  For other
  arrangements, contact the author/maintainer via email:
  



  1.3.  What's New?


  o  Updated dpp entry.  See Section ``dpp''

  o  Added noweb-outline.el entry.  See section ``noweb-outline.el''


  1.4.  What's Needed?


  o  I've checked some of the links to software.  If anyone finds the
     FAQ useful, please let me know if the links are active or dead 
when
     you're surfing.

  o  Some authors have disappeared.  If you know one of them, or are 
an
     author (and wish to remain in contact ;), then please provide
     current contact information.

  o  I could use some feedback on the state of the FAQ.  It's about as
     complete as I know how to make it.



  2.  Introduction

  Literate programming is a phrase coined by Donald Knuth to describe
  the approach of developing computer programs from the perspective 
of a
  report or prose.  The focus, then, is on description (and
  documentation) of the approach in human-readable form. This is in
  contrast to the normal approach of focusing on the code.

  This document is for new and experienced users of literate 
programming
  tools.  The purpose is to explain the concept of literate 
programming
  and to provide a resource for locating resources of interest to
  literate programmers and those interested in literate programming.

  The Literate Programming (LitProg) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
  list is maintained by Dave Thompson .

  Comments and constructive criticisms are welcome.  Direct flames to
  /dev/null (or nul if you're a msdos user! ;-) If you find an error,
  please report it.  I'm particularly interested in establishing the
  locations of generally available literate programming tools.  If you
  are the author of such a tool and wish to have it included in this
  list, please send email.

  Please note this is a work-in-progress.  It is not complete, and
  probably will never be complete.  Nevertheless, the information
  contained herein may be useful to some.  Use it as it is intended.



  3.  How do I get the FAQ?

  3.1.  Literate Programming FAQ

  You have many ways to get a current copy of this FAQ.  One is to use
  anonymous ftp (if you don't know how, see a later section in this 
FAQ)
  to connect to one of the ``Comprehensive TeX Arvchive Network'' 
sites
  or the Literate Programming Archive and retrieve a copy of the file.
  Open an ftp connection to one of the CTAN sites and retrieve the 
file
  help/comp.programming.literate_FAQ.

  Cesar Bellardini cballard@santafe.com.ar prepared a translation of 
the
  FAQ into Spanish.  It's available at

  (For more information on CTAN and the literate programming archive,
  see the section below entitled ``Internet Nodes of Interest to
  Literate Programmers''.)



  4.  Is there a newsgroup?

  One of the most important resources is the literate programming
  newsgroup, comp.programming.literate.  Because of the amount of
  spamming and unrelated posts, the newsgroup is now moderated.  You 
can
  read this newsgroup using your standard reader.


  5.  What internet nodes are of interest to literate programmers?

  The principal nodes of interest to literate programmers are the
  Literate Programming Archive (LPA hereafter) and the CTAN
  (Comprehensive TeX Archive Network).



  5.1.  Web Ring


  There is a web ring for literate programming.  It is at the URL
  www.webring.org/cgi-bin/webring?ring=litprog;list



  5.2.  The Literate Programming Archive (LPA)

  The Literate Programming Archive (LPA) is:

  o  Node: ftp.th-darmstadt.de [130.83.55.75]

  o  Directory: /pub/programming/literate-programming

  o  Notes: Fastest response during off-U.S.  [yep] business hours.

  However, the LPA seems to be defunct in that no files are available 
in
  the /pub directory.  If anyone knows anything about the status of 
the
  LPA, please send email.



  5.3.  Comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN)

  Participating hosts in the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network are 
(from
  the file CTAN.sites):

  o  ftp.dante.de (Mainz, Germany)

  o  anonymous ftp /tex-archive (/pub/tex /pub/archive)

  o  Gopher: gopher.dante.de

  o  e-mail ftpmail@dante.de

  o  WWW www.tex.ac.uk

  o  Administrator: 

  o  ftp.tex.ac.uk (Cambridge, UK)

  o  anonymous ftp /tex-archive (/pub/tex /pub/archive)

  o  Gopher: gopher.tex.ac.uk

  o  NFS mountable from nfs.tex.ac.uk:/public/ctan/tex-archive

  o  WWW www.tex.ac.uk

  o  Administrator: 

  o  ctan.tug.org (Boston, Massachusetts, USA)

  o  anonymous ftp /tex-archive (/pub/archive)


  o  WWW ctan.tug.org

  o  Administrator: 

  The pointer, ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/pub/tex/ctan/CTAN.sites, is 
directed
  to the official list of CTAN archive sites and their mirrors.



  6.  What is Literate Programming?

  Literate programming is the combination of documentation and source
  together in a fashion suited for reading by human beings.  In fact,
  literate programs should be enjoyable reading, even inviting!  
(Sorry
  Bob, I couldn't resist!)  In general, literate programs combine 
source
  and documentation in a single file.  Literate programming tools then
  parse the file to produce either readable documentation or 
compilable
  source.  The WEB style of literate programming was created by D.E.
  Knuth during the development of his TeX typsetting software.

  All the original work revolves around a particular literate
  programming tool called WEB.  Knuth says:

       The philosophy behind WEB is that an experienced system pro-
       grammer, who wants to provide the best possible documenta-
       tion of his or her software products, needs two things
       simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a
       language like C for programming.  Neither type of language
       can provide the best documentation by itself; but when both
       are appropriately combined, we obtain a system that is much
       more useful than either language separately.



       The structure of a software program may be thought of as a
       web that is made up of many interconnected pieces.  To docu-
       ment such a program we want to explain each individual part
       of the web and how it relates to its neighbours. The typo-
       graphic tools provided by TeX give us an opportunity to
       explain the local structure of each part by making that
       structure visible, and the programming tools provided by
       languages such as C or Fortran make it possible for us to
       specify the algorithms formally and unambigously. By combin-
       ing the two, we can develop a style of programming that max-
       imizes our ability to perceive the structure of a complex
       piece of software, and at the same time the documented pro-
       grams can be mechanically translated into a working software
       system that matches the documentation.


  See Section ``Other Opinions'' for some additional thoughts on
  literate programming.



  7.  How do I begin literate programming?

  I've given considerable thought as to what should be in this section
  of the FAQ.  This is probably the most important section of this
  document.  My suggestion is that you review Section ``Supported
  Tools'' and Section ``Unsupported Tools'' to choose a system
  appropriate for the kind of development you do.  Then, use the 
manual
  that accompanies the system to determine how it complements your
  development style.


  Both Eric van Ammers, Section ``van Ammers'', and Norman Ramsey,
  Section ``Ramsey'', wrote some thoughts on literate programming.  
I've
  included these thoughts in Section ``Other Opinions'' below.

  I started with a pretty-printing tool, Section ``cnoweb'', as a test
  of the utility of interweaving significant documentation with code.
  My experience is detailed in Section ``Thompson''.

  Wayne Sewell's (1989) Weaving a Program: Literate Programming in 
WEB.
  Van Nostrand Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-31946-0 (pbk).   This book focuses
  on using Knuth's web system.

  I've read D. E. Knuth's collection of articles (1992) entitled
  Literate Programming. Center for the Study of Language and
  Information, Stanford University, ISBN 0-937073-80-6 (pbk).  This 
book
  gives insight into Knuth's thoughts as he developed the web system 
of
  literate programming (and TeX for typesetting).  However, it does 
not
  document methods for literate programming.

  Some talk exists in the newsgroup/mailing list for a Usenet 
University
  course in literate programming.  I'm sure discussion of this topic
  will be welcomed.  (1Feb2000: Note this thread has been dead for a
  long, long time.  I wish someone would pick it up.)



  8.  Important and Actively-Supported Tools

  I have selected a few of the tools from my list that appear to be 
most
  actively supported.  Inclusion here does not imply endorsement;
  exclusion does not imply lack of quality.


  8.1.  CWEB


     Developer:
        Silvio Levy and D.E. Knuth

     Version:
        3.5

     Hardware:
        Unix systems (dos and amiga ports available)

     Languages:
        C and C++

     Formatter:
        Plain TeX and LaTeX.

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  ftp://labrea.stanford.edu:/pub/cweb

     o  LPA:/c.c++

     o  CTAN:/web/c_cpp/cweb

     o  DOS version is no longer available.

     o  Win32 version www.literateprogramming.com

     o  Amiga version from Aminet:dev/c.

     o  Mac port of CTANGLE in LPA:/machines/mac

     o  LaTeX support in LPA:/c.c++

     Readme:
        Bundled with above

     Description:
        No description provided.

     Support:
        Bugs to 


  8.2.  CWEBx3.0


     Developer:
        Marc van Leeuwen

     Version:
        3.04

     Hardware:
        Any system using ASCII code

     Languages:
        ANSI C

     Formatter:
        Plain TeX

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  wwwmathlabo.univ-poitiers.fr/~maavl/CWEBx/

     Readme:
        Bundled with above

     Brief description:
        A modified implementation of CWEB, with some extensions.
        Provides a mode for full compatibility with Levy/Knuth CWEB. 
The
        most significant extras are:

     o  Typedef declarations affect formatting througout source file

     o  Include files are scanned for typedef definitions

     o  Flexible selection of layout style

     o  Possibility to refer to sections using symbolic labels

     o  CTANGLE detects unbalanced braces and parentheses

     o  CWEAVE can be made to report syntax errors more easily

     o  Some additional mechanisms to avoid formatting problems

     o  New and modular set of grammar rules, based on ANSI C syntax

     o  Possibility to suppress #line directives

     o  A new manual


     Support:
        bugs and remarks to maavl@mathlabo.univ-poitiers.fr


  8.3.  FWEB


     Developer:
        John A. Krommes

     Version:
        1.62

     Hardware:
        Unix, VMS, and DOS platforms (anything with ANSI C)

     Languages:
        C, C++, Fortran-77, Fortran-90, Ratfor, TeX; also, a anguage-
        independent mode.

     Formatter:
        LaTeX.  Plain TeX may work, but is no longer supported.

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  ftp.pppl.gov/pub/fweb

     o  CTAN:/web/fweb

     o  msdos version on ftp.ppl.gov site

     Readme:
        In bundle with above.

     Description:
        It also has a well-developed user's manual and its own FAQ 
(see
        above).  Beginning with 1.40, documentation is maintained in 
gnu
        texinfo format.  It runs on most platforms: VMS, PC, UNIX, and
        pretty much anything that the GNU C compiler (GCC) is 
supported
        for.

     Features:

     o  Processes multiple languages during a single run (so one can 
mix
        C and Fortran, for example).

     o  Language-independent mode (v1.40).

     o  Ability to turn off pretty-printing (v1.40).

     o  Built-in Ratfor translator.

     o  Built-in macro preprocessor (closely follows ANSI C, with
        extensions).

     o  A style file that allows the user to adjust many parameters 
and
        behavior patterns of FWEB.

     o  Various operator-overloading features that provide additional
        pretty-printing capabilities to languages such as C++ and
        Fortran-90.

     o  Numerous miscellaneous features and command-line options.


     Support:
        Bug reports and suggestions to krommes@princeton.edu Online
        documentation is available at
        w3.pppl.gov/%7ekrommes/fweb_toc.html


  8.4.  noweb


     Developer:
        Norman Ramsey 

     Version:
        2.9a

     Hardware:
        Unix and DOS platforms (DOS binaries available for v2.7).

     Languages:
        All programming languages, singly or in combination.  
Automatic
        indexing for C, Icon, Pascal, Standard ML, TeX, Yacc

     Formatter:
        Plain TeX, LaTeX, and HTML formatters.  Will convert LaTeX to
        HTML automatically.

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  CTAN:/web/noweb

     o  LPA:/independent

     o  Last recourse, use ftp.cs.virginia.edu:pub/nr

     Readme:
        With bundle above, or see the noweb home page:
        www.eecs.harvard.edu/~nr/noweb Those without http access can
        consult ``Literate Programming Simplified,'' IEEE Software,
        September 1994, pp97-105, or ``Literate Programming Using
        Noweb,'' Linux Journal, October 1997, pp64-69.


     Description:
        Noweb is designed to meet the needs of literate programmers
        while retaining the simplest possible input format.  Its 
primary
        advantages are simplicity, extensibility, and language-
        independence.  Noweb uses 5 control sequences to WEB's 27.  
The
        noweb manual is only 3 pages; an additional page explains how 
to
        customize its LaTeX output.  Noweb works ``out of the box'' 
with
        any programming language, and supports TeX, latex, and HTML 
back
        ends.  A back end to support full hypertext or indexing takes
        about 250 lines; a simpler one can be written in 40 lines of
        awk. Unlike WEB, Noweb does not have prettyprinting built in,
        but there are several third-party extensions that provide
        prettyprinting, includeing dpp, pretzel, and nwpp.


        Noweb supports indexing and identifier cross-reference,
        including hypertext ``hot links.'' noweb includes a simple,
        efficient LaTeX-to-HTML converter, so you can use hypertext
        browsers on your legacy documents.  Noweb can also process 
nuweb
        programs, so you can use noweb to convert a standard nuweb
        program to HTML with one command.


     Support:
        email to the author


  8.5.  nuweb


     Developer:
        Preston Briggs: 

     Version:
        0.87

     Hardware:
        Unix systems: Sparcs, RS/6000s, HPs; (!) MSDOS and Amiga.

     Languages:
        Any programming language or combination of programming
        languages.

     Formatter:
        Latex

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  Unix: CTAN:/web/nuweb

     o  DOS:  CTAN:/web/nuweb-pc

     o  LPA:/independent

     o  Amiga: CTAN:/web/nuweb/nuweb_ami

     o  Amiga: wuarchive.wustl.edu/pub/aminet

     Readme:
        Send mail to 


     Description:
        A single program that takes a web file written in a 
combination
        of latex and any programming language(s) and produces a latex
        file that can be pretty printed and a set of files containing
        code for compilation/interpretation by the appropriate 
language
        processors.


        Strengths include speed, simplicity, multiple languages, nice
        indices and cross-references, latex.  Doesn't require any
        special macros or macro files.


        Drawbacks: latex-dependent, no code pretty printing, harder to
        make indices than cweb.


        More good stuff: nice support for make, doesn't reformat 
source
        files, so they're easy to debug.  Lots of control without too
        much effort.  That is, it doesn't do too much!


        Future directions... Very little change planned, except 
perhaps
        refinements in the indexing software.


     Support:
        Hack it yourself or send e-mail to 


  8.6.  ProTeX


     Developer:
        Eitan Gurari 

     Version:
        ProTeX 1.5,  AlProTeX 2.3

     Hardware:
        Any platform with (La)TeX

     Languages:
        Any language

     Formatter:
        TeX or LaTeX

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~gurari/systems.html

     o  LPA:/independent

     Readme:
        With bundle above

     Description:

     o  Easy to use

     o  Extensible

     o  Language independent

     o  Multiple output files

     o  Fast (single compilation provides output and dvi files)

     o  Option for XHTML and pdf files

     o  No installation is needed besides copying the files (written 
in
        TeX) Introduction of main features and examples on web site
        above.  Complete manual in Eitan M. Gurari, "TeX and LaTeX:
        Drawing and Literate Programming", McGraw-Hill, 1994

     Support:
        



  9.  Unsupported Tools



  9.1.  AFTWEB (Almost Free Text WEB)


     Developer:
        Todd A. Coram

     Version:
        4.6

     Hardware:
        Linux, Unix, MSDOS Any system with Perl, and a C++ compiler 
with
        STL (such as gcc 2.7.2).

     Languages:
        Any (C/C++ support supplied)

     Formatter:
        LaTeX or HTML by way of AFT.

     Availability:
        www.mindspring.com/~coram/aft.html

     Readme:
        Bundled with above.


     Brief description:
        AFTWEB uses a CWEB-like syntax. It uses AFT for documentation
        markup (AFT is a minimalistic, yet powerful, markup language
        with very few commands).  AFTWEB was written in AFTWEB (using
        C++) and the weaved document is available online (as HTML) at
        the URL listed above.


        Support for C and C++ is supplied. You can easily support 
other
        languages (such as Java and Perl) by writing a new language
        description file.


        The markup language AFT is very easy to learn and is available
        at the same URL as AFTWEB.


     Support:
        Bugs to tcoram@pobox.com


  9.2.  APLWEB


     Developer:
        Christoph von Basum

     Version:
        Unknown

     Hardware:
        MSDOS

     Languages:
        IBM APL2 and STSC APL

     Formatter:
        Plain TeX

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from: watserv1.uwaterloo.ca:/languages/apl/aplwe
b

     Readme:
        At above ftp location.


     Description:
        None available.

     Support:
        Unknown

     Note:
        The status of this particular package is unknown.  It's at the
        ftp site, but other than that I can't say.  Last known email
        address of developer is CvB@erasmus.hrz.uni-bielefeld.de.


  9.3.  CLiP


     Developer:
        E.W. van Ammers and M.R. Kramer

     Versions:
        2.0 and 2.4b (DOS only)

     Platform:
        Vax/VMS, Unix, DOS

     Languages:
        Any programming language

     Formatter:
        Any formatter (TeX, LaTeX, Troff, Runoff, HTML, etc) or any
        wordprocessor including WYSIWYG systems (Word Perfect, 
WinWord,
        Ami Pro, Word Pro, etc.)

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl:/CLIP/ms_dos

     o  ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl:/CLIP/ms_dos_24b

     o  ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl:/CLIP/vax_vms

     o  ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl:/CLIP/unix

     o  CTAN:/web/clip

     o  LPA:/machines/ms-dos

     o  LPA:/machines/vax

     Readme:
        With bundle above

     Description:
        CLiP does not use explicit commands to perform the extraction
        process. Rather it recognizes pseudostatements written as
        comments in the programming language in question. CLiP
        distinguishes pseudostatements from ordinary comments because
        the former comply with a particular style. This style can be
        adjusted to suit virtually any programming language. The CLiP
        approach to LP makes the system extremely versatile. It is
        independent of programming language and text processing
        environment. We designed CLiP to be compatible with hypertext
        systems as well. Some hypertext examples are at:

     o  ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl/clip/html/queens.htm

     o  ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl/clip/html/pal1.htm

     Features:

     o  CLiP imposes virtually no limitations on the text-processing
        system used to produce the documentation. If the 
text-processor
        supports these items you can

     o  structure the documentation according to your own taste.

     o  include drawings, pictures, tables etc.

     o  disclose your documentation my means of X-ref tables, Indexes,
        Table of contents, Table of tables, Table of figures, etc.

     o  typeset the documented code.

     o  Extracts any number of modules from a maximum of 64 source
        files.

     o  No pretty-printing. Code from the source files is copied "as 
is"
        to the module.

     o  Appearance of code segments in the documentation matches those
        of the modules to ease the identification of code segments.

     o  Supports partially specified data types.

     o  Comprehensive user manual (preliminary version) and technical
        description.

     o  No automatic generation of a X-ref table for program
        identifiers.

     Support:
        Bugs, problems and assistance by e-mail to
        


  9.4.  mCWEB


     Developer:
        Markus Oellinger

     Version:
        1.0

     Hardware:
        Unix

     Languages:
        C/C++

     Formatter:
        plain TeX

     Availability:
        anonymous ftp from ist.tu-
        graz.ac.at:/pub/utils/litprog/mcweb/mcweb.tgz

     Readme:
        at same location

     Description:
        This is mCWEB 1.0, a descendant of the CWEB system of 
structured
        documentation by Donald E. Knuth and Silvio Levy.  It adds 
some
        features that are indispensable when working in a team. mCWEB
        regards a project of a book consisting of several chapter 
files.
        By means of import and export commands, it automatically 
manages
        all relationships between the chapters of a book and to other
        books.


        Interface documentation is now also part of mCWEB. It is
        extracted into a second TeX file. This makes it possible to
        define well known interfaces between the individual parts of a
        project that will be implemented by different persons.


        In addition, mCWEB parses C header files to find out about all
        the datatypes defined there.


        mCWEB comes with a full completely rewritten user manual and 
is
        compatible with CWEB.


     Support:
        Institute of Software Technology, moell@ist.tu-graz.ac.at


  9.5.  FunnelWeb


     Developer:
        Ross N. Williams ross@ross.net

     Version:
        V3.2  (May 1999).

     Hardware:
        MS-DOS, MacOS, Win32, OpenVMS, Solaris, Red Hat Linux, BSD/OS,
        FreeBSD, Digital Unix, IRIX.

     Status:
        Open Source GNU.

     Languages:
        No restrictions.

     Formatter:
        Generates TeX and/or HTML

     Web:
        www.ross.net/funnelweb/

     Availability:
        ftp.ross.net/clients/ross/funnelweb/

     Readme:
        With bundle above.


     Description:
        FunnelWeb is a production-quality literate-programming tool 
that
        emphasises simplicity and reliability. Everything about
        FunnelWeb, from the simplicity of its language to the
        comprehensive tutorial in the user's manual, has been designed
        to make this as simple, as practical, and as usable a tool as
        possible.

     Features:

     o  Provides a simple macro preprocessor facility.

     o  Generates typeset documentation in TeX and/or HTML formats.

     o  Runs on a wide range of platforms.

     o  Portable C source code distributed under GNU licence.

     o  Comprehensively documented online:

     o  www.ross.net/funnelweb/tutorial/

     o  www.ross.net/funnelweb/reference/

     o  www.ross.net/funnelweb/developer/

     o  Programming-language independent.

     o  Mature and essentially bug-free (released 1992).

     o  Can generate multiple output files.

     o  Allows complete control over the output text.

     o  Also useful for generating web sites!


     Support:
        No formal support available.  Mailing list maintained with 
about
        50 subscribers.  Informal assistance available from mailing
        list.


  9.6.  FunnelWeb 3.0AC


     Developer:
        Enhanced by A.B.Coates coates@physics.uq.edu.au from FunnelWeb
        v3.0 by Ross N. Williams ross@guest.adelaide.edu.au

     Version:
        3.0AC

     Hardware:
        MSDOS, Mac, VMS, Sun, OSF/1, Linux, Sys.V, OS/2.

     Languages:
        No restrictions.

     Formatter:
        Tex, LaTeX, or HTML.

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from
        ftp.physics.uq.oz.au:/pub/funnelwebAC30.tar.gz

     Readme:
        With bundle above; for FunnelWeb manual see WWW page
        www.physics.uq.oz.au:8001/people/coates/funnelweb.html


     Description:
        FunnelWeb 3.0AC is an enhanced version of FunnelWeb (see the
        entry for FunnelWeb).  FunnelWeb is designed to be typesetter
        independent, though FunnelWeb v3.0 only supports (La)TeX as 
the
        typesetter.  FunnelWeb 3.0AC also supports HTML, and creates
        appropriate hypertext links within the document among the code
        sections.  FunnelWeb 3.0AC also supports automatic and manual
        insertion of line directives, so that compiler errors can be
        flagged back to the original FunnelWeb source file.  FunnelWeb
        3.0AC is completely compatible with FunnelWeb v3.0 sources 
(with
        one minor exception; see the file README.ABC which comes with
        the FunnelWeb 3.0AC distribution).


     Support:
        Supported by A.B.Coates coates@physics.uq.edu.au, subject to 
the
        time constraints imposed by his thesis.


  9.7.  LEO


     Developer:
        Edward K. Ream edream@mailbag.com

     Version:
        1.0

     Hardware:
        Windows

     Languages:
        Unknown

     Formatter:
        Unknown

     Availability:
        Contact the author or see
        www.mailbag.com/users/edream/front.html

     Readme:
        Unknown

     Description:
        See web site.

     Support:
        Unknown.


  9.8.  Literate Programmer's Workshop (LPW)


     Developer:
        Norbert Lindenberg

     Version:
        1.1

     Hardware:
        Apple Macintosh

     Languages:
        C++, Object Pascal & others

     Formatter:
        self-contained WYSIWYG system

     Availability:
        Anonymous ftp from:

     o  CTAN:/web/lpw

     o  ftp.apple.com:/pub/literate.prog

     Readme:
        With bundle above.  Also comes with 38-page manual.


     Description:
        The Literate Programming Workshop is an environment for the
        integrated development of program source text and 
documentation
        in combined documents. It consists of a WYSIWYG word processor
        based on a style sheet approach, a mechanism to extract parts 
of
        the text in a document, and a project management system that
        handles multi-document projects. The system is designed to be
        used in conjunction with the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop: 
it
        prepares raw source text for the MPW compilers, accepts MPW
        error messages, and shows them in the context of the original

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