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TeX, LaTeX, etc.: Frequently Asked Questions with Answers [Monthly]

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Archive-name: tex-faq

Comp.text.tex is a forum for the discussion of TeX, LaTeX and other
related things. TeX is a software system written by Donald Knuth to
typeset text, especially text containing mathematics. LaTeX is a set
of macros written in TeX, designed to simplify the the typesetting of
a document by allowing the user to concentrate on the content and
structure of the document rather than the exact appearance of the
finished product. METAFONT, also discussed here, is a program which
allows the user to design their own fonts. The definitive reference
for TeX is _The TeXbook_, by Donald Knuth (Addison Wesley, 1984, ISBN
0-201-13447-0, paperback 0-201-13448-9). For LaTeX, see _LaTeX, a
Document Preparation System_ by Leslie Lamport (Addison Wesley, 1986,
ISBN 0-201-15790-X); the second edition of this book covers LaTeX2e.
Full documentation for LaTeX2e can be found in _The LaTeX Companion_
by Michael Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin (Addison
Wesley, 1994, ISBN 0-201-54199-8). For METAFONT, see _The
METAFONTbook_ by Donald Knuth (Addison Wesley, 1984, ISBN
0-201-13445-4). The American Mathematical Society has two macro
packages which are also popular, called AMS-TeX and AMS-LaTeX.

This article contains answers to some frequently asked questions on
comp.text.tex. Please don't ask these questions again, as they've been
answered many times before.

Malencontreusement, je n'ai ni le temps ni la comp\'etence pour
traduire cet article en fran\c{c}ais. Je prie donc, le lecteur
interess\'e par fr.comp.text.tex d'avoir l'indulgence d'accepter la
version anglaise.

This is version 1.53 for February, last changed 2/8/96.

This article includes answers to:

  1) How can I get a copy of this article?
  2) Where can I get a DVI to PostScript conversion program?
  3) How can I include a PostScript figure in LaTeX?
  4) Where can I find a DVI previewer for machine Y running Q?
  5) Where can I get the manual for PiCTeX?
  6) In LaTeX, I put some definitions in my document, but I get the error
     ``Use of \@ doesn't match its definition'' or ``You can't use 
     \spacefactor in vertical (or math) mode.'' What's wrong?
  7) What is OzTeX and where can I get it (TeX for the Mac)?
  8) What is Fig and where can I get it?
  9) How do I get WEB for C, FORTRAN, or some other language?
  10) How can I typeset music in TeX?
  11) What is TUG and TUGboat?
  12) How do I convert Adobe's afm files to tfm format?
  13) In LaTeX, how do I get a double-spaced document?
  14) In LaTeX, how do I include a file in the verbatim environment?
  15) In LaTeX, how do I do Y?
  16) Where can I find a TeX macro or LaTeX style file for doing Y?
  17) How do I generate an index in TeX/LaTeX?
  18) How do I get METAFONT to do what I want it to do?
  19) Where do I get TeX/LaTeX for machine Y running Q?
  20) Where can I get a thesis style for LaTeX?
  21) How do I get symbols for ``the real numbers'', ``the complex numbers'',
      and so on?
  22) What repositories of TeX material are available, and how can I
      access them?
  23) How do I use PostScript fonts with LaTeX?
  24) How can I convert from format Y to TeX or LaTeX, and vice-versa?
  25) How do I get a file into the major style repositories?
  26) Where can I get font Y?
  27) Where can I get a dvi driver for the HP LaserJet?
  28) TeX and LaTeX are hyphenating words weirdly. What can I do?
  29) How can I convert a TeX or LaTeX file into a plain ASCII file,
      with all the formatting intact, a la nroff?
  30) How do I enlarge TeX? I keep getting ``memory capacity exceeded''
      errors.
  31) In LaTeX, I used \pagestyle{empty}, but the first page is still 
      numbered. What do I do?
  32) Where do I find documentation about BibTeX?
  33) How do I use BibTeX with plain TeX?
  34) How do I draw Feynman diagrams in LaTeX?
  35) What is the New Font Selection Scheme (NFSS)?
  36) In LaTeX, my cross-references for floats (figures and tables) are
      incorrect. What's wrong?
  37) I want to change the margins in LaTeX. What can I do?
  38) How do I find the width of a letter, word, or phrase in TeX?
  39) In LaTeX, is there a comment or ``ignore'' environment with which
      I can exclude blocks of text from the .dvi file?
  40) Where can I find a spelling checker for my TeX file?
  41) What is LaTeX2e?
  42) In LaTeX, how can I define a new log-like function?
  43) In LaTeX, how do I put a \sqrt in my \caption statement?
  44) In LaTeX, how do I get thin and thick \hlines in a table?
  45) In LaTeX, how do I number the bibliography using Arabic numbers without
      square brackets or using superscripts?
  46) In LaTeX, why are my cites all numbered zero?
  47) In LaTeX, my figures get put on a page by themselves with too much
      whitespace, but when I tried \begin{figure}[t] they get printed at
      the end. Why?
  48) In LaTeX, how do I make a line break in a section title?
  49) In LaTeX, how do I number equations by section?
  50) What is the fontinst package?

If you are looking, for instance, for the answer to question 17, and wish
to skip everything else, you can search ahead for the regular expression
``^17)''.

These are all legitimate questions, but they seem to appear too 
frequently for long-time readers of the list. 

Many of the answers below tell you that you can obtain something
through anonymous ftp. ``Ftp'' stands for file transfer protocol, and
is also the name of a program implementing the protocol. The program
allows users to transfer files to and from remote sites, if the sites
are connected via a network such as the Internet. ``Anonymous ftp'' 
indicates a user may connect to a remote site as the user 
``anonymous'' with a password consisting of their email address, and
thus be able to retrieve files from that site. Remember, anonymous
ftp is a privilege and the system administrators for these sites 
have made these files available out of their own generosity. Therefore
please restrict your ftp'ing to non-prime hours at the various sites.

I would like to acknowledge Don Hosek, Ken Yap, Tomas Rokicki, Micah
Beck, David Carlisle, and Donald Arseneau who provided many of the
answers.  Joe Weening, Hal Perkins, Walter Carlip, Max Hailpern, Tad
Guy, Raymond Chen, Henning Schulzrinne, Sebastian Rahtz, Mark James,
Peter Galko, Mike Ernst, Rainer Sch\"opf, Oren Patashnik, Philippe
Louarn, Rafal Zbikowski, Anita Marie Hoover, David Rhead, Darrell
McCauley, Cameron Smith, Emma Pease, Patrick McPhee, Karl Berry, Robin
Fairbairns, Joohee Jeong, Sam Steingold, J\"org Knappen, Barbara
Beeton, Norman Ramsay, Richard Mathar, and Juergen Schlegelmilch
provided additional material and criticisms. The format of this
document is based on the Frequently Asked Questions written by Steve
Hayman which formerly appeared in comp.unix.wizards. Any mistakes are
mine. Send corrections, suggestions, and additions to
bobby@hot.caltech.edu.

1) How can I get a copy of this article?

   You're reading it aren't you? SAVE it :-). This article is posted
   monthly to comp.text.tex and cross-posted to news.answers. It is
   therefore archived at any site that archives news.answers.
   News.answers is archived on rtfm.mit.edu, and this article is
   available there via anonymous ftp in the directory
   ./pub/usenet/news.answers/tex-faq. If you do not have anonymous
   ftp, send an e-mail message containing the lines ``SENDME FAQ.'' to
   fileserv@shsu.edu (fileserv@shsu.bitnet).  Another way to retrieve
   it via email is through the mailserver at rtfm: send a message
   containing the lines ``help'' and ``index'' to
   mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu for information on how to obtain it.
 
   Other news.answers/FAQ archives are: cnam.cnam.fr (163.173.128.6)
   in the anonymous ftp directory /pub/FAQ; ftp.uu.net (192.48.96.2)
   in the anonymous ftp directory /pub/usenet (also available via mail
   server requests to netlib@uunet.uu.net, or via uunet's 1-900
   anonymous UUCP phone number); and ftp.cs.ruu.nl (131.211.80.17) in
   the anonymous ftp directory NEWS.ANSWERS (also accessible via mail
   server requests to mail-server@cs.ruu.nl). Many of the archives
   mentioned in question 22 also maintain current versions of this
   document.

   The UK TeX Users Group wrote an expanded version of this article
   for their annals, Baskerville (vol. 4, no. 6, Dec. 1994). It is
   available as a very nice Web page from the URL
   http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?introduction=yes.

2) Where can I get a DVI to PostScript conversion program?

   Two good DVI to PostScript conversion programs that run under
   Unix are:
     dvips - by Tomas Rokicki. This driver is very nice and has the
       ability to deal with virtual fonts. Available via anonymous ftp
       from labrea.stanford.edu (36.8.0.112) in ./pub. Dvips is
       written in C and ports easily to other operating systems.  It
       is available for VMS via anonymous ftp from any CTAN site (see
       question 22) and also through the DECUS library (see question
       22). A precompiled version for MSDOS is available from
       monu1.cc.monash.edu.au (130.194.1.101) in ./pub/dvips54.zip,
       from shape.mps.ohio-state.edu (128.146.110.30) in
       ./pub/msdos/dvips/dvips54.zip, or from any CTAN site (see
       question 22) in ./systems/msdos/drivers/dvips.  If you wish to
       use postscript fonts, get dvipslib.zip as well.  Documentation
       is available in dvips.ps.Z. Karl Berry has a version of dvips
       called dvipsk which has a configure script and path searching
       code similar to that in his other programs (e.g., web2c).  It
       is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.cs.umb.edu
       (158.121.104.33) in ./pub/tex/.

     dvitops - by James Clark. Available via anonymous ftp from any CTAN site
       (see question 22, e.g., pip.shsu.edu (192.92.115.10)), in 
       ./tex-archive/dviware/dvitops. Dvitops is written in C and will 
       compile under Unix, MSDOS, VMS, and Primos.

3) How can I include a PostScript figure in LaTeX?

   LaTeX has a standard package providing graphics inclusion, scaling,
   rotation, and color, the graphics package. Keith Reckdahl has
   written a primer for using this package which describes the
   inclusion of Encapsulate PostScript (EPS) files, and covers such
   additional issues as converting PostScript to EPS, figures and
   subfigures, using compressed or non-EPS files (TIFF, GIF, etc.),
   and putting LaTeX text or equations into EPS graphics using
   PSfrag. This document is available from any CTAN site (see question
   22) in ./tex-archive/info/epslatex.ps.

   Anil K. Goel has written a long document describing in detail how
   to include figures, pictures, and images in LaTeX 2.09
   documents. It is available via anonymous ftp from math.uwaterloo.ca
   (129.97.140.144) in ./pub/figsInLatex.ps.Z. A dvi file with the
   included PostScript files is also available.

   Also, one can use the older the epsfig macros written by Sebastian
   Rahtz based on the psfig macros of Trevor Darrell used in LaTeX
   2.09.  They are available via anonymous ftp from any CTAN site (see
   question 22) in graphics/psfig. You will also need a dvi to
   PostScript conversion program that supports \specials. The ones
   mentioned in question 2 do, and come with a version of psfig ready
   to use with them. The psfig macros work best with EPS Files. In
   particular, psfig will need the file to have a BoundingBox (see
   Appendix C of the _PostScript Language Reference Manual_). If you
   don't have an EPS file, life can be difficult.

   To allow resizing by dvips (see question 2) with PostScript files
   that are not EPS files, add the one line 
   %%BoundingBox: llx lly urx ury
   prior to any non-comment line in the PostScript
   file. The four ``lower left'' and ``upper right'' arguments must be
   numbers to indicate the lower left and upper right corner in units
   of 1/72 of an inch. Otherwise, dvips assumes the PostScript file
   fills a whole page.

   One further note about including PostScript figures is that they
   are not part of the dvi file, but are included when you use a dvi
   to PostScript conversion program. As a result, most dvi previewers
   will simply show the blank space TeX has reserved for your figure,
   not the figure itself.

4) Where can I find a DVI previewer for machine Y running Q?

   This briefly lists some previewers available via anonymous ftp. All
   are available from any CTAN site (see question 22) in addition to the
   sites listed below:
      dvipage - For SunView. This was published in volume 15 of 
        comp.sources.unix and is available at sites that archive
        this. One such source is archive.cis.ohio-state.edu 
        (128.146.8.52).
      xtex - For the X Window System. Available via anonymous ftp 
        from ftp.cs.colorado.edu (128.138.243.151) in 
        ./pub/cs/misc/SeeTeX/SeeTeX/SeeTeX-*.tar.Z.
      dviapollo- for Apollo Domain. Available via anonymous ftp from
        labrea.stanford.edu (36.8.0.112) in ./pub/dviapollo.tar.Z.
      dvidis - For VAXstation VWS. Available via anonymous ftp from
        src.doc.ic.ac.uk (146.169.2.1) in /packages/tex/dviware/dvidis.
      xdvi - Also for the X Window System. Available via anonymous ftp
        from ftp.x.org (192.112.44.100) in ./contrib/xdvi.tar.Z. Karl
        Berry has a version of called xdvik with features analogous
        to his dvipsk (see question 2) available via anonymous ftp from
        ftp.cs.umb.edu (158.121.104.33) in ./pub/tex.
      dvitovdu - for Tektronix 4010 and other terminals under Unix.
        Available via anonymous ftp from any CTAN site (see question 22)
        in the directory ./dviware/dvitovdu.
      dvi2tty - A dvi to ASCII conversion program, for normal terminals.
        Available from ftp.cs.ruu.nl (131.211.80.17) in 
        ./pub/TEX/DVI/dvi2tty.shar. A VMS version is available from
        fileserv@shsu.edu (see question 22).
      texsgi - For SGI under Irix. Available via anonymous ftp from 
        ftp.brl.mil (128.63.16.158) in ./info-iris/tex. Both a binary 
        and source are available, but be sure to get the fonts as well.
   
5) Where can I get the manual for PiCTeX?

   The PiCTeX manual is not free. It is available for $30 ($35 with the
   disk) from the TeX Users Group:
                     TeX Users Group
                     P. O. Box 869
                     Santa Barbara, CA 93102-0869 (USA)
                     805-963-1338
                     FAX: 805-963-8358
                     tug@tug.org

   The proceeds from this sale go to Michael Wichura, the author of PiCTeX,
   and TUG.

6) In LaTeX, I put some definitions in my document, but I get the error
   ``Use of \@ doesn't match its definition'' or ``You can't use 
   \spacefactor in vertical (or math) mode.'' What's wrong?

   Definitions should be be in a style file, and if you move them there,
   you should have no problem.

   If you don't want to do that, you need to include \makeatletter
   before the definitions to allow the ``internal'' LaTeX commands to
   be accessed.  These commands are normally protected from change by
   having @ in them.  Since @ is not a letter, it is normally not
   allowed as part of a multi-letter command name. To access internal
   commands you need to tell LaTeX to pretend that @ is a letter.
   This happens automatically when LaTeX reads a style file, but in
   your main document you need to surround the offending commands with
   \makeatletter ... \makeatother.

7) What is OzTeX and where can I get it (TeX for the Mac)?

   OzTeX is a version of TeX for the Macintosh. An older version of
   OzTeX (1.42) is public domain, but newer versions are shareware. A
   DVI Previewer and PostScript driver are also included. It should
   run on any Macintosh Plus, SE, II, or newer model, but will not
   work on a 128K or 512K Mac. It was written by Andrew Trevorrow, and
   is available via anonymous ftp from from midway.uchicago.edu
   (128.135.12.73) in ./pub/OzTeX, which contains other public domain
   TeX-related software for the Mac as well, or on a floppy disk from
   TUG (see question 11).  Questions about OzTeX may be directed to
   oztex@midway.uchicago.edu.
   
8) What is Fig and where can I get it?

   Fig is a menu driven tool similar to MacDraw that allows you to
   draw objects on the screen of a Sun Workstation running SunView.
   TransFig is a set of tools which translate the code fig produces to
   other graphics languages including PostScript and the LaTeX picture
   environment. Both are available via anonymous ftp from any CTAN
   archive (see question 22) or from ftp.cs.cornell.edu
   (128.84.218.75) in ./pub/fig.  Fig is supported by Micah Beck
   (beck@cs.cornell.edu) and Transfig is maintained by Brian Smith
   (bvsmith@lbl.gov). Another tool for fig conversion is fig2MF which
   generates METAFONT code from fig input, also available from CTAN

   XFig is essentially the same program except it runs under the X
   Window System. It is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.x.org
   (192.112.44.100) in ./contrib/applications/drawing_tools/xfig. It
   was written by Brian Smith.

9) How do I get WEB for C, FORTRAN, or some other language?

   TeX is written in the programming language WEB; WEB is a tool to
   implement the concept of ``literate programming.'' For more information
   on literate programming, see the newsgroup comp.programming.literate.

   There is a version of WEB for C called CWEB written by Silvio Levy. It
   is available via anonymous ftp from princeton.edu (128.112.128.1) in 
   the directory ./pub/cweb.

   There is a version of WEB called Spidery WEB which supports many 
   languages including ADA, awk, and C. It was written by Norman Ramsey 
   and, while not in the public domain, is usable free. It is available 
   via anonymous ftp from pip.shsu.edu (192.92.115.10) in 
   tex-archive/web/spiderweb.

   FWEB is a version of WEB for Fortran, Ratfor, and C written by John
   Krommes (krommes@lyman.pppl.gov). Version 1.13 is available via
   anonymous ftp from ftp.pppl.gov (192.55.106.129) in ./pub/fweb.

   SchemeWEB is a Unix filter that translates SchemeWEB into LaTeX source
   or Scheme source. It was written by John Ramsdell and is available from
   sun.soe.clarkson.edu (128.153.12.3) in ./pub/tex/tex-programs/schemeweb.

   APLWEB is a version of WEB for APL and is available from
   watserv1.waterloo.edu (129.97.129.140) in ./languages/apl.

   There are three flavors of WEB that are language-independent and
   have substantial user communities: funnelweb, noweb, and nuweb.
   NoWeb and NuWeb both emphasize simplicity; NoWeb is a bit simpler
   and more flexible, but NuWeb is more portable and easier to
   install.  FunnelWeb is more complex, but is routinely used on a
   wide variety of machines.  All three systems are available from any
   CTAN site (see question 22) in directory
   /tex-archive/web/{funnelweb,noweb,nuweb}.  An introduction to NoWeb
   appeared in the September 1994 IEEE Software, page 97.  Funnelweb
   also appeared in comp.sources.unix volume 26 issue 121, posted 11
   April 1993.

   Most of the above are also available from your nearest CTAN site
   (see question 22).

10) How can I typeset music in TeX?

    A package called MuTeX, written by Andrea Steinbach and Angelika
    Schofer, aids in doing this. It is available via anonymous ftp
    from ftp.cs.ruu.nl (131.211.80.17) in pub/TEX/MuTeX.tar.Z.  This
    package allows you to typeset single-staff music and lyrics.

    A more powerful package which allows the typesetting of orchestral
    and polyphonic music is MusicTeX, written by Daniel Taupin 
    (taupin@frups51.bitnet). It is available via anonymous ftp from
    rsovax.ups.circe.fr (130.84.128.100) [.musictex]. It should also
    be available from the archive sites detailed in question 22.

    There is a mailing list for discussion of typesetting music in TeX.
    To subscribe, send a request to mutex-request@stolaf.edu.

11) What is TUG and TUGboat?

    TUG is the TeX Users Group. TUGboat is their newsletter, containing
    useful articles about TeX and METAFONT. TUG also distributes
    TeX-related microcomputer software on disks. Inquiries should be 
    directed to:
                     TeX Users Group
                     P. O. Box 869
                     Santa Barbara, CA 93102-0869 (USA)
                     805-963-1338
                     FAX: 805-963-8358
                     tug@tug.org

    TUGboat is not archived electronically, although some authors choose
    to make their articles available through CTAN (see question 22). The
    TUG newsletter, TeX and TUG News, is archived electronically on CTAN
    sites in ./tex-archive/digests/ttn. TUG does offer a duplication 
    service.

12) How do I convert Adobe's afm files to tfm format?

    An afm2tfm program is distributed with dvips, available via
    anonymous ftp from labrea.stanford.edu (36.8.0.112) in ./pub. Alan
    Jeffrey's fontinst package is an afm2tfm converter written in TeX 
    and will be used to support the PostScript tfm files for LaTeX2e
    (see question 41). It is available from any CTAN site (see question
    22).

    For the Macintosh, there is a program called EdMetrics which does
    the job (and more). It is available free from:
              Blue Sky Research
              534 Southwest Third Avenue
              Portland, Oregon 97204 (USA)
              800-622-8398 or 503-222-9571

13) In LaTeX, how do I get a double-spaced document?

    Are you producing a thesis, and trying to obey regulations that were
    drafted in the typewriter era?  LaTeX is a typesetting system, so the
    appropriate design conventions are for ``real books''.  Find whoever
    is responsible for the regulations, and try to get the wording changed
    to cater for typeset theses (e.g., to say ``if using a typesetting 
    system, aim to make your thesis look like a well-designed book'').

    If you fail to convince your officials, or want some inter-line 
    space for copy-editing:
     - In LaTeX2e, use \linespread. For double-spaced output, use
       \linespread{1.6}.
     - Try changing \baselinestretch: \renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{1.2}
       may be enough to give officials the impression you've kept
       to their regulations.  Don't try changing \baselineskip: its
       value is reset at any size-changing command.
     - Alternatively, get doublespace.sty from any CTAN site (see question 22,
       e.g., pip.shsu.edu (192.92.115.10)) in 
       ./tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/misc. There's also a setspace.sty
       in the same directory which is more flexible, and consistent with the
       latest release of LaTeX.

    It's not worth going to a lot of trouble.  (If officials won't allow
    standard typographic conventions, you won't be able to produce an
    aesthetically pleasing document anyway!)

14) In LaTeX, how do I include a file in the verbatim environment?

    A good way to do this is to use Rainer Sch\"opf's verbatim.sty,
    which provides the command \verbatiminput that takes a file
    as an argument. This package is available from any CTAN site (see 
    question 22) in ./tex-archive/macros/latex/distribs. Several
    files are needed.

    Another way to do this is to use the alltt environment defined in
    the style file alltt.sty available from the CTAN archives in 
    ./tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/misc/alltt.sty.

15) In LaTeX, how do I do Y?

    If you can't figure out how to do something in LaTeX after you
    have read the manual very carefully, asked your local LaTeX
    guru, and thought about it, there is a LaTeX help service 
    available. Please note that the way to accomplish something 
    in LaTeX is often by using an appropriate style file, so please
    check this also (see question 16). If none of this works, send mail 
    in English describing your problem to latex-help@cs.stanford.edu. 
    If you haven't gotten a reply to your problem within about a week, 
    send mail to latex-help-coordinator@cs.stanford.edu.

16) Where can I find a TeX macro or LaTeX style file for doing Y?

    Before you ask for a TeX macro or LaTeX style file to do something, 
    please search the TeX macro index written by David M. Jones
    (dmjones@theory.lcs.mit.edu) and available via anonymous ftp
    from theory.lcs.mit.edu (18.52.0.92) in ./pub/tex/TeX-index. Those 
    without access to anonymous ftp can send a message containing the
    line ``send tex TeX-index'' to archive-server@theory.lcs.mit.edu.
    The index is an excellent reference document with plenty of 
    cross-references. Unfortunately, it is also very dated. For packages
    listed in _The LaTeX Companion_, consult the file ./info/companion.ctan
    on any CTAN site (see question 22).

    Another possibility is to use the searching features of the CTAN
    archives. Once you have an anonymous ftp connection established to
    a CTAN site, you can type the command `quote site index '
    and it will provide a list of files with the string  in
    their names.

17) How do I generate an index in TeX/LaTeX?

    Making an index is not trivial. There are several indexing programs
    which aid in doing this. The following are available from any CTAN
    site (see question 22):
      makeindex - for LaTeX under Unix (but runs under other OS's
         without changes). A version for the Macintosh is available from
         Johnny Tolliver at tolliver%atf.mfenet@nmfecc.llnl.gov. The 
         Makeindex documentation is a good source of information on how 
         to create your own index. Makeindex can be used with some TeX macro
         packages other than LaTeX, such as Eplain.
      idxtex - for LaTeX under VMS.
      texix - for TeX on CMS and Macintosh machines.
      texindex - for LaTeX under Unix. Available from
         comp.sources.misc archives in Volume 23.

18) How do I get METAFONT to do what I want it to do?

    METAFONT allows you to create your own fonts, and ordinary TeX users
    will never need to use it. METAFONT, unlike TeX, requires some 
    customization. Each output device for which you will be generating 
    fonts needs a mode associated with it. Modes are defined using the 
    mode_def convention described on page 94 of _The METAFONTbook_. So 
    first create a file, which we will call local.mf, containing all the 
    mode_defs you will be using. The file modes.mf by Karl Berry,
    available via anonymous ftp from ftp.cs.umb.edu (158.121.104.33) in
    ./pub/tex is a good starting point for this. Listings of settings for 
    various output devices are also published periodically in TUGboat 
    (see question 11). Now create a plain base file using inimf, plain.mf, 
    and local.mf:
       % inimf
       This is METAFONT....
       **plain                 # you type plain
       (output)
       *input local            # you type this
       (output)
       *dump                   # you type this
       Beginning to dump on file plain....
       (output)
       %
    This should create a base file named plain.base (or something close)
    and should be moved to the directory containing the base files on
    your system.
 
    Now you need to make sure METAFONT loads this base when it starts
    up. If METAFONT loads the plain base by default on your system, then
    you're ready to go. Under Unix, we might, for instance define a 
    command mf which executes ``virmf &plain,'' loading the plain base
    file.
 
    The usual way to create a font with plain METAFONT is to then start 
    it with the line
       \mode=; mag=; input 
    in response to the * prompt or on the METAFONT command line. If 
     is unknown or omitted, then the mode defaults to proof 
    mode. If this has happened METAFONT will produce an output file
    called .2602gf. The  is a floating 
    point number or magstep (magsteps are defined in _The METAFONTbook_ 
    and _The TeXbook_). If mag= is omitted, then the 
    default is 1. For example, to generate cmr10 at 12pt for an epson 
    printer you would type
       mf \mode=epson; mag=1.2; input cmr10
    Note that under Unix the '\' and ';' characters must usually be 
    escaped, so this would typically look something like
       mf \\mode=epson\; mag=1.2\; input cmr10
 
    If you don't have inimf or need a special mode that isn't in the
    base, you can put its commands in a file (e.g., ln03.mf) and invoke
    it on the fly with the \smode command. For example, to create 
    ln03.300gf for an LN03 printer, using the file
	% This is ln03.mf as of 2/27/90
	% mode_def courtesy of John Sauter
	proofing:=0;
	fontmaking:=1;
	tracingtitles:=0;
	pixels_per_inch:=300;
	blacker:=0.65;
	fillin:=-0.1;
	o_correction:=.5;
    (note the absence of the mode_def and enddef commands), you would type
       mf \smode="ln03"; input cmr10
    
19) Where do I get TeX/LaTeX for machine Y running Q?

    Unix - The Unix TeX distribution is available via anonymous ftp from any 
       CTAN archive (see question 22). The Northwest Computing Support Center
       was ordered closed by the University of Washington, thus Unix TeX
       can no longer be ordered.

       Instructions for retrieving TeX via anonymous ftp are available
       in the document FTP.nwc, itself available via anonymous ftp from
       ftp.cs.umb.edu (158.21.104.33) in ./pub/tex.

       Note: The Unix version of TeX allows your ``macros'' or ``inputs''
       and ``fonts'' directories to be hierarchically organized with
       further subdirectories, rather than dumping everything into one
       directory. This can cause TeX to start very slowly. The cure
       for this problem is to insure each subdirectory contains either
       only directories or only files.

    AIX - TeX for the IBM RS6000 running AIX can be found on
       ftp.dante.de (129.206.100.192) in ./tex-archive/systems/unix/aix3.2.

    PC - A TeX package for the PC, including LaTeX, BibTeX, previewers,
       and drivers is available via anonymous ftp from 
       vax.eedsp.gatech.edu (130.207.226.24) in ./pub/TeX. The variety here
       is sbtex version 30 by Wayne Sullivan. EmTeX, another TeX package 
       for the PC by Eberhard Mattes, is available via anonymous ftp from 
       ftp.dante.de (129.206.100.192) in 
       ./tex-archive/systems/msdos/emtex and also from niord.shsu.edu
       (192.92.115.8) in [.emtex]. This package includes LaTeX, METAFONT,
       BibTeX, etc., as well. Documentation is available in both German 
       and English. The EmTeX user's mailing list is 
       emtex-user@methan.chemie.fu-berlin.de.

    Mac - see question 7 for a public domain version (OzTeX). Another version
       is CMacTeX, which has TeX 3.14, METAFONT 2.7, a screen previewer,
       dvips, a PostScript printing utility for the LaserWriter, and some font

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