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Mongolia Frequently Asked Questions Version 7 (July 7th, 2000)

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Last-modified: July 2000
Version: 7.00
URL: http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/mf.html

  Mongolia FAQ
  Oliver Corff


  Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions
  (and their answers) about Mongolia, Mongolians and the areas where
  Mongolian-speaking people live.
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents
























































  1. Preliminary Notes

     1.1 About this FAQ
     1.2 How is this text compiled?
     1.3 How can I get a copy of this Frequently Asked Questions list?
     1.4 Can I receive regular updates of this document?
     1.5 I see all these irritating spelling variants in Mongolian Names.
	Which one is right?
     1.6 Is there a key to the romanization used here?

  2. Mongolia - Communication and Information

     2.1 Are there any  sources of information on Mongolia in the Internet?
     2.2 Is there an Internet or e-mail link to Mongolia?
     2.3 Is there an IDD (International Direct Dialing)
	telephone link to Mongolia?
        2.3.1 What are the area codes within Mongolia?
     2.4 How to reach Inner Mongolia?
     2.5 How to reach Buryatia and Kalmykia?
     2.6 Are there mobile (cellular) phone services available in Mongolia?
     2.7 Are there Mongolian radio broadcasts?
     2.8 What about Electricity Supply?

  3. Mongolia - Land, People, Language

     3.1 Where do Mongolians live?
     3.2 What Happened When? A Chronological View at Mongolian History
     3.3 Who is Who among the Khans?
     3.4 How does the Mongolian National Flag look like,
	and what does it mean?
     3.5 How do Mongolians live? (Economy Basics)
        3.5.1 Pastoral Nomadism
        3.5.2 Industrialized Cities
        3.5.3 Mongolian Economy in China
        3.5.4 What Currency is used in Mongolia?
     3.6 Where to call in distress?
     3.7 Who speaks Mongolian?
     3.8 What kind of a language is Mongolian?
        3.8.1 Mongolian - Language
        3.8.2 Mongolian - Grammar
        3.8.3 Mongolian - Writing
           3.8.3.1 Mongolian Writing: Uighur
           3.8.3.2 Mongolian Writing: Chinese
           3.8.3.3 Mongolian Writing: Phagsba
           3.8.3.4 Mongolian Writing: Soyombo
           3.8.3.5 Mongolian Writing: Horizontal Square, or Xwt Drwljin
           3.8.3.6 Mongolian Writing: Tibetan
           3.8.3.7 Mongolian Writing: Cyrillic
     3.9 Is Mongolian easy to learn?
     3.10 Are the Mongolian dialects an obstacle for the foreigner
	learning Mongolian?

  4. Mongolia - Administrative

     4.1 I want to study in Mongolia. Where do I establish contact?
     4.2 I want to work in Mongolia, e.g. teach a foreign language.
	Where do I establish first contact?
     4.3 I want to study in Inner Mongolia. Where do I establish contact?
     4.4 I want to work in Inner Mongolia, e.g. teach a foreign language.
	Where do I establish first contact?
     4.5 I want to travel to Mongolia. What kind of travel
	documentation do I need?
     4.6 I want to travel to Inner Mongolia. What kind of travel
	documentation do I need?
     4.7 I want to travel to Buryatia. What kind of travel
	documentation do I need?
     4.8 I want to travel to Kalmykia. What kind of travel
	documentation do I need?
     4.9 Where is the nearest embassy / consulate of Mongolia?

  5. Mongolia - Tourism

     5.1 How to travel to Mongolia?
     5.2 What kind of accommodation is available in Mongolia?
     5.3 What kind of transport is available in Mongolia?
        5.3.1 Transport in Ulaanbaatar
        5.3.2 Transport outside Ulaanbaatar
     5.4 Which season is recommended for travelling?
     5.5 What are the points of sightseeing, museums etc.?

  6. Inner Mongolia - Tourism

     6.1 How to travel to Inner Mongolia?
     6.2 What kind of accommodation is available in Inner Mongolia?
     6.3 What kind of transport is available in Inner Mongolia?
     6.4 Which season is recommended for travelling?
     6.5 What are the points of sightseeing, museums etc.?

  7. Mongolia - Computing Issues

     7.1 Is there some kind of ``Mongolian ASCII'' or commonly
           acknowledged encoding standard for Mongolian language
           data processing?
     7.2 Are there computer programs for processing Mongolian
	language documents?

  8. Mongolia - Suggested Readings

     8.1 Which book do you recommend as a start?


  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Preliminary Notes



  1.1.  About this FAQ

  Archive-name: mongol-faq Version: 7.00

  Copyright: Oliver Corff 1994..2000 Berlin, Ulaanbaatar, Beijing, Macau

  Anyone wishing to contribute to or improve this document should not
  hesitate to send the edited part(s) to me, i.e. Oliver Corff,
  corff@zedat.fu-berlin.de or infomong@zedat.fu-berlin.de

  Translations into other languages are welcome and appreciated. The
  author kindly requests to receive a proof copy prior to publishing the
  translated version in order to make sure that the translated version
  is based on the most recent original.

  Thanks to Christopher Kaplonski, Peter Crandall, Mingan Choct,
  Ariunaa, Peter Lofting, Ken Beesley, Wolfgang Lipp, Noreen Palazzo,
  Solongowa Borzigin, Purevdorj, Darima Socktoyeva, Prof. Dr. Yondon
  (+), Mykel Board, Dominik Troger, David Methuen, Peter G. Campbell,
  Katherine Petrie, Laurent Amsaleg, E. Bulag, Graham Shields, Jakub
  Paluszak, Mark Chopping, Kent Madin and all others who have
  contributed by submitting facts, corrections or suggestions on what to
  include. Contributions of all kind are so numerous that the FAQ
  compiler lost track of who contributed what a long time ago.

  Technical Note: This text is now maintained on the basis of an sgml
  master in Latin1 encoding.  The master document is converted into
  plain text form (for feeding into the newsgroups) and HTML form (for
  presentation in the WWW).

  If you want to redistribute this FAQ (which you are free and welcome
  to do as long as the document is not modified and the copyright and
  author lines remain intact) please contact the FAQ source if you
  require the FAQ in sgml format.

  Without contacting the author, you are only entitled to store, mirror
  and reproduce the text version as found in the newsgroups or the HTML
  version found at the official Mongolia FAQ URL. Incorporation of this
  FAQ in commercial distributions, no matter which media (CD-ROM, books,
  etc.) requires written permission by the FAQ compiler.



  1.2.  How is this text compiled?

  Back in 1994, the maintainer of this FAQ thought it would be nice to
  have a FAQ on Mongolia. He collected some of the original questions
  (mainly questions like: how to obtain visa, where to find software,
  etc.), circulated the idea in the then newly founded Mongolia-related
  newsgroup soc.culture.mongolian and within a few days a number of
  contributors and ideas came together to form the first Mongolia FAQ.
  Since then, this text saw a considerable increase in detail and range
  of questions.

  People still tend to ask the same questions, even this one: How was
  this text compiled?  Well, the answer is right here. As far as
  possible, the FAQ maintainer tries to use first-hand experience and
  information to answer questions. Over the years, the maintainer
  visited Mongolia and Southern (Inner) Mongolia in various functions.
  The maintainer hopes to be able to share his, not always objective
  view, with the readers.  Sometimes, if not frequently, the information
  is provided by readers of the before-mentioned newsgroup or readers of
  this FAQ. The list of contributors speaks!  You are always welcome to
  share your ideas, suggestions, criticism and updated information with
  the maintainer since this offers the best chance for improving this
  text. Join the ranks!

  Information is updated in two ways: if major changes become necessary,
  the document is changed immediately and redistributed as soon as
  possible, usually within a few days. Other questions of not such an
  urgent nature take more time to make it into this document, and then
  the document receives its updates at greater intervalls, but also at
  the benefit of greater chunks.



  1.3.  How can I get a copy of this Frequently Asked Questions list?

  You are holding a copy of this document in your working memory! Save
  it now. A copy of this document is always kept in Infosystem Mongolei
  (see below) but here again is its URL: http://userpage.fu-
  berlin.de/~corff/mfaq.html


  1.4.  Can I receive regular updates of this document?

  Yes and no. Of course you are entitled to receive updates, and you can
  send a mail to infomong@zedat.fu-berlin.de requesting an updated
  version, but due to the nature of how the FAQ is generated, it cannot
  be regular. Whenever a new version is out, it will be announced in
  soc.culture.mongolian and the mailing list.



  1.5.  Names. Which one is right?  I see all these irritating spelling
  variants in Mongolian

  Given the name of the Capital of Mongolia, one can find it written in
  several forms: Ulan Bator, Ulaan Baatar, Ulaanbaatar and even
  Ulaganbagatur (where the ``g'' sometimes is --- strangely enough!  ---
  spelled by a Greek gamma).. Which one, then, is the really correct
  form?


  As with every non-Latin script, there is a problem of rendering this
  script into Latin which involves a choice between two methods:
  transliteration and transcription. The first method tries to reproduce
  the original writing while the second method tries to indicate its
  pronounciation. The process is further complicated if another language
  and/or script is inserted between the original and the target. Hence,
  Ulaanbaatar is the transliteration of the name in Mongolian (using the
  Cyrillic alphabet), Ulan Bator is a spelling derived from the Russian
  transcription of the name (though Russians and Mongolians use the same
  writing system, the Russians preferred to make a transcription of the
  Mongolian name rather than accepting it unmodified into Russian),
  Ulaan Baatar is the transliterated spelling of the Mongolian words
  ``Red Hero'' (the literal meaning of the name), and Ulaganbagatur
  finally is an approach to transliterate the name from the Classical
  Mongolian writing.

  The whole methodological problem is explained in detail in the section
  on Mongolian and computers towards the very end of this FAQ.

  Due to the difficulties of rendering names etc. for postal, news and
  other services some more or less ``official'' ways of spelling exist,
  in addition to several transliterations and common spellings which are
  not correct in the strict sense but enjoy a broad acceptance.


  1.6.  Is there a key to the romanization used here?

  The FAQ maintainer uses the MLS system for romanizing Mongolian. The
  MLS system offers round-trip compatibility (Cyrillic texts can be
  transliterated, the romanized version can be retransliterated and will
  be identical with the Cyrillic original). Software for MS-DOS and UNIX
  based computers is available at no charge.

  The basic principles underlying MLS are simple: if ever possible, use
  one Latin character for one Cyrillic letter, and if not possible, use
  an unambiguous digraph. Vowels are classified as front (female) or
  back (male); front vowels are all marked with diacritics. It is a fact
  that Mongolian *has* seven basic vowels, and it is not possible to
  avoid these in writing.

  Furthermore, if ever possible, one transliteration symbol should be
  used for Cyrillic *and* Classical Mongolian letters of the same
  linguistic origin.

  The following simple table tries to avoid graphics and foreign
  character sets but uses conventional names and positions to identify
  Cyrillic letters.


      Position   Name                        Romanization      Notes
      __________________________________________________________________
      1          A                           A/a
      2          Be                          B/b
      3          Ve                          W/w               (1)
      4          Ge                          G/g
      5          De                          D/d
      6          Ye                          E/e
      7          Yo                          Yo/ or yo        (2)
      8          Je                          J/j
      9          Ze                          Z/z
      10         Ih                          I/i
      11         Xagas I (I kratkoye)        I or /          (3)
      12         Ka                          K/k
      13         eL                          L/l
      14         eM                          M/m
      15         eN                          N/n
      16         O                           /o
      17         Front (barred) O            /
      18         Pe                          P/p
      19         eR                          R/r
      20         eS                          S/s
      21         Te                          T/t
      22         U                           U/u
      23         Front (Straight) U          /
      24         Fe                          F/f
      25         Xa                          X/x               (4)
      26         Ce                          C/c
      27         Che                         Q/q
      28         Sha                         Sh/sh
      29         Shcha                       Qh/qh             (5)
      30         Xatuu Temdeg (Hard Sign)    `                 (6)
      31         61-Y                        Y/y               (7)
      32         Zln Temdeg (Soft Sign)   '                 (6)
      33         E (not Ye)                  /
      34         Yu                          Yu/yu             (8)
      35         Ya                          Ya/ya

  Notes:

  1. W was chosen over v because v serves a slightly different purpose
     in the transliteration of Classical Mongolian. And, there is no w,
     only b, in Classical Mongolian.

  2. Small yo can be written as e+diaeresis (#137 in the good old IBM
     cp437 codepage) or as yo. Pick what you like. Actually, for ISO
     8859-1 users, there is also a capitalized  available.  (Not so for
     IBM cp437 users). The converter software is lenient and accepts
     both; so should humans.

  3. Xagas i (lit. ``half i'') can be entered as #139 by IBM cp437
     users; a capitalized version of this letter is available for ISO
     8859-1 users only.

  4. X may look strange at first glance but is optically close to its
     Cyrillic partner; H could not be used because it is reserved for
     Buriad (e.g.: hain baina uu) where it coexists with it/x/.

  5. Yes, Qh for Shch is odd. However, this letter never occurs in
     genuinely Mongolian words, so it should not be too insulting to the
     eye. And, unlike shch, it is round- trip compatible!

  6. Both hard and soft signs are expressed by simple accents, the
     transliteration does not make a difference between uppercase and
     lowercase letters. It is possible to judge by context.

  7. Why ``61-...''? In Mongolian called jaran-nign, lit.  ``sixty-
     one'', reproduces the hand-written image if this letter.

  8. Yu and yu can also be written as Y and Y so as to avoid things
     like *yulr.  ylr looks nicer!


  2.  Mongolia - Communication and Information


  2.1.  Are there any  sources of information on Mongolia in the Inter
  net?

  Yes and No.

  First the No. Until about 1994, There used to be only a number of
  miscellaneous documents (mainly U.S. government publications) on
  Mongolia available on the Internet. These documents (not much more
  than a handful of files) were partially outdated, difficult to find
  and frequently available on various mirrored sites increasing the
  confusion.

  Now the first Yes. In spring 1994, the USENET newsgroup
  soc.culture.mongolian came into existence. It enjoys a certain
  popularity, not only among Mongolia specialists but also among other
  interested persons. This newsgroup (which is not moderated) offers
  lively discussions on all sorts of topics ranging from food to
  religion, from history to modern politics. Many frequent contributors
  supply soc.culture.mongolian also with news about current events,
  exhibitions etc.

  In order to read the news of soc.culture.mongolian, start any of the
  news readers available on your machine (this may be tin, rn, nn, or
  any other favourite). Following the instructions, it should not be too
  difficult to subscribe to soc.culture.mongolian since this is a
  mainstream USENET newsgroup which should be available at any Internet
  site featuring USENET services.

  Now the second Yes. The Mongolia Society in Bloomington, Indiana
  established a WWW home page in Summer 1995. The WWW homepage gives
  information about the Mongolia Society and its activities. The
  Mongolia Society URL is: http://www.indiana.edu/~mongsoc.  The author
  of this site, Mitch Rice, is very active in collecting, bundling and
  updating Mongolia-related Internet documents, references to other WWW
  home pages on Mongolia and Tuva, gopher servers and single documents
  on Mongolia in the Mongolia WWW Virtual Library, the URL being:
  http://www.indiana.edu/~mongsoc/vl.html


  Now the third Yes. The Mongolian Internet provider Magicnet, the URL
  being: http://www.magic.mn provides news about Mongolia and even as a
  daily download of ``Today'' articles. ``Today'', or ndr in
  Mongolian, is the most important newspaper in Mongolia. For reading
  the articles, a special font is provided which can be loaded into
  Microsoft Windows environments.

  Now the fourth Yes.  Recently, many more Web sites on Mongolia have
  emerged, some of them with a focus on travel, others with a focus on
  Southern (Inner) Mongolia, again others focussing on Chinggis Khan and
  his spiritual heritage.  Instead of including all references here I
  wish to redirect all requests to the Mongolia WWW Virtual Library.


  Now the fifth Yes.  In November 1993, the first gopher server offering
  dedicated information on Mongolia started working. It was located at
  Free University, Berlin, Germany, and could be reached via (do not try
  that anymore, that is history now!): gopher gopher.fu-berlin.de .

  This gopher server used to offer the Infosystem Mongolei featuring a
  small but growing collection of articles, maps, legal documents and
  software related to Mongolia.  From early 1995 on, this gopher server
  was supposed to migrate to a WWW site, but, alas! due to a handful of
  reasons this aim could not be achieved before spring 1996.

  In its present phase, the Infosystem Mongolei - WWW site is to a
  certain yet small extent still a mirror of the former gopher site but
  soon the former gopher site will only be recognizable as its root, not
  as its substance any more.

  New technologies are constantly advancing and create new opportunities
  for publishing documents which seemed to be ``unpublishable'' due to
  technical constraints. The new WWW site supports Chinese characters in
  its documents eliminating effectively the need for dedicated software
  on the users' side.

  The Infosystem Mongolei - WWW URL is: http://userpage.fu-
  berlin.de/~corff/ You can receive announcements about new articles,
  updates etc. if you send a mail to infomong@zedat.fu-berlin.de with
  the request to be included in the mailing list.



  2.2.  Is there an Internet or e-mail link to Mongolia?

  The first e-mail link in Mongolia came into existence in
  January/February 1995 and was not yet a continuous (i.e. 24 h/day)
  operation but it seemed to work. It is still active and organized by a
  commercial service provider, Datacom Co., Ltd. Mongolia. The address
  is: bataa@magicnet.mn and requests to this address will most certainly
  be answered by Bataa, the system operator. There are various types of
  service charges. First, one has to open an account which is between
  USD 20.-- and USD 100.-- depending on whether one is a private or an
  institutional user. Then there is a monthly charge (starting with USD
  5.-- / month), and in addition there is a volume charge for every kB
  of data which is 30 cents. Despite these various charges, the
  operation via e-mail is by far the cheapest because fax and DX
  telephone costs are tremendous.

  In 1999, many Internet providers have mushroomed at least in
  Ulaanbaatar, and there are now too many Internet Cafs as can be
  included here; they are easily locatable by their huge billboards like
  the ones near the National University and the Baga Torog, the Small
  Ring Street with Sxbaatar Square at its centre. Fares seem to be
  around T1600.-- per hour, which is rather modest. The occasional
  traveller to Ulaanbaatar can thus afford to stay in touch with home.


  In addition, the Academy of Sciences which used to have its own
  connection (UUCP) to the Internet via Dubna, Russia, has switched to
  magicnet, too, in summer 1996, but this is history, and recently the
  Academy can be reached via: nerguy@arvis.ac.mn for the Computer Centre
  of the Academy. The other institutes which used to have an address at
  Dubna are migrating too, and their new addresses will be provided in
  due course.

  Inner Mongolia University can be accessed by the URL
  http://www.imu.edu.cn.

  Inner Mongolia Polytechnical University can be accessed by the URL
  http://www.impu.edu.cn.

  By information of February 4, 1996, Buryatia can be reached via e-
  mail. For first contact, you may communicate to root@inov.buriatia.su
  (Communicated by Darima Socktoyeva, February 1996)



  2.3.  Is there an IDD (International Direct Dialing) telephone link to
  Mongolia?

  Yes, there is the possibility to place IDD (International Direct
  Dialing) telephone calls to Mongolia. The country code is ++976.





  2.3.1.  What are the area codes within Mongolia?


  Available  area codes are:


                     Ulaanbaatar                   01
                     Darxan                       037
                     Dornod, Qobalsan            061
                     Arxanga                     073
                     Bayan-lgi                  071
                     Bayanxongor                  069
                     Bulgan                       067
                     Gow'-Alta                   065
                     Gow'-Smber                  075
                     Darxan-Uul                   037
                     Dornogow'                    063
                     Dundgow'                     059
                     Zawxan                       057
                     Orxon                        035
                     wrxanga                   055
                     mngow'                     053
                     Sxbaatar                    051
                     Slng                      049
                     Tw                          047
                     Uws                          045
                     Xowd                         043
                     Xwsgl                      041
                     Xnti                       039
                     Baganuur Drg              031
                     Nalax Drg                033


  At present the telephone system in Ulaanbaatar is under reconstruction
  which implies that certain numbers are changed. Ulaanbaatar used to
  have 5-digit telephone numbers until 1992. Those numbers which then
  began with a 2 are usually converted by placing a 3 in front of the
  leading digit. Other numbers were changed later. Some numbers still
  retain the 5-digit order.



  2.4.  How to reach Inner Mongolia?


  Inner Mongolia can be reached via China. The country code is 86, the
  area code for Huhhot is (0)471 (skip the leading 0 when dialing from
  abroad). In 1995, there was a change in the telephone system of
  Huhhot, and a ``9'' must now be included after the first digit. So, a
  number like 454433 becomes now 4954433.



  2.5.  How to reach Buryatia and Kalmykia?


  Buryatia can be reached via Russia. The country code is ++7 but there
  are two city codes for Ulan Ude: 3012 for 6-digit telephone numbers,
  30122 for 5-digit telephone numbers.

  Kalmykia is also reached via Russia, its area code is 847 and a
  district Code may appear between it and your local numbers.




  2.6.  Are there mobile (cellular) phone services available in Mongo
  lia?

  Yes, a service provider named ``MobiCom'' provides cellular phone
  services (GSM standard) within Ulaanbaatar and a 35-km range around
  the Capital as well as Darxan and rdnt. You can take your Siemens,
  National Panasonic or other mobile phone to Ulaanbaatar and get a
  service contract (with chip card) there. The initial fee is hefty
  (around USD 200.-- or USD 300.--) and the airtime price per minute is
  around USD .50. Monthly fee used to be USD 50.-- but was reduced to
  approximately USD 30.-- with the arrival of a competitor, SkyTel (see
  below).  MobiCom numbers begin with 99-11, followed by a four-digit
  subscriber's number. Dialling from abroad requires the sequence
  +976-99-11-subscriber.  There is no further area code between the
  country code and the cell phone number.

  Contact MobiCom Corporation, tel. 312222, or send a fax before going
  there (+976-1-314041) if you want to use their service.

  Another mobile phone company which started business in 1999 is SkyTel.
  Their telephone numbers begin with 96-16. SkyTel rates seem to be more
  competitive than MobiCom's.

  Both MobiCom and SkyTel have their offices in the immediate
  neighbourhood behind the Central Post Office west of Sxbaatar Square.



  2.7.  Are there Mongolian radio broadcasts?

  The question has two possible basic meanings. First of all, we can ask
  whether there are radio broadcasts in Mongolia. Then we can ask
  whether there are Mongolian language radio broadcasts abroad. Both
  questions can be answered positively.

  Mongolia has a domestic radio service, both wireless and wire, as well
  as television. Besides the domestic radio service, there is also an
  international shortwave service.

  The radio in Ulaanbaatar is mainly based on a wire-distributed system
  with loudspeakers in virtually every urban househould. In some areas
  there is only one channel available while other areas feature two
  channels which are propagated with long waves and detected with very
  simple sets: two channel buttons (with the more sophisticated sets;
  the simple ones do without), volume control, that's it. If one does
  not want to listen, one pulls the plug; otherwise it's Plug and Play.

  These radio sets, called `boxes' (xarcag in Mongolian) are available
  in the department store but where ever you go you would inevitably run
  into the soft background of these ever-present voices, especially at
  offices, workplaces etc. The movie ``Argamshaa'' has a scene where an
  empty apartment is shown with just the radio being switched on.

  Recently, at least one independent FM radio station took up operation.

  Mongolian television is a complex story: the state-run television can
  mainly be received in Ulaanbaatar, but in recent years many satellite
  channels mushroomed. It is now possible to watch MTV. Besides these
  new stations, Mongolian television has also diversified: There is now
  Ulaanbaatar City Television which even broadcasts on Monday when the
  state-run television station habitually has its day off. More details
  on television schedules and broadcast history can be found in an
  article by John W. Williams, Mass Media in Post-Revolution Mongolia
  (in Infosystem Mongolei).


  International broadcasts on short wave by Radio Ulaanbaatar can be
  heard daily in English and Mongolian.  The frequencies given here are
  last winter's schedule but appearantly there are not many changes so
  these can be tried:

          Time (UTC)             Frequencies    Direction
          ______________________________________________________________
           0300-0330         9960, 12000kHz     Asia
           0910-0940         9960, 12000kHz     Asia
           1445-1515         7530, 9950kHz      Asia
           1930-2000         4080, 7530kHz      Europe and Asia


  A more detailed list which is probably not up-to-date gives
  information on the languages used by Radio Ulaanbaatar, schedule
  effective from September 24, 1995 to March 26, 1996 (Do not feel
  shocked to see the year 1996 there. The frequencies do not seem to
  change over the years.)


   Language     Target Area      Weekday   Time UTC    Frequencies, kHz

   Mongolian    East Asia        Daily     1020-1050    12085,9960,990
                Siberia          Daily     1250-1320    9950,7350,990
   English      Australia        Daily     0910-0940   12000,9960
                South Asia       Daily     1445-1515    9950,7530
                Europe           Daily     1930-2000    7530,4080
                North America    Daily     0300-0330    12000,9960
   Russian      Far East         12.45.7   0945-1015    12085,9960
                Siberia          .23.567   1410-1440    9950,7530
                Europe           1.32.67   1700-1730    7530,4080
   Japanese     East Asia        Daily     1120-1150    12085,9960
                                 ......7   1200-1230    12085
   Chinese      East Asia        Daily     1050-1120   12085,9960,990
                Asia             Daily     1330-1400   9950,7530,990


  Address:   Radio Ulaanbaatar, CPO Box 365, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia

  The reception is usually fairly weak (as reported repeatedly and
  backed up by own experience).



  2.8.  What about Electricity Supply?

  All these electric things are mentioned here. Do they operate on
  batteries? No, of course not. The standard electrical voltage of
  Mongolia is 220V, 50 cycles/second, and is supplied via Russian-style
  electricity outlets. The connector pins are round, usually with a
  diameter of 4mm, so squeezing modern German 5mm plugs into Mongolian
  sockets will break the socket. Either retrofit your wiring with so-
  called European plugs (4mm, no earthing connector), or use adapters,
  or modify or replace the wall outlet.

  Electricity is available in the cities of Mongolia as well as in amag
  centres and larger villages; in the countryside however, solar-driven
  batteries are extremely useful.

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